3rd Battalion
Royal Australian Regiment
Your Faithfully
Japan - Korea - Malaya - Borneo - Vietnam - East Timor - Solomons - Iraq - Afghanistan
3rd Battalion
Royal Australian Regiment

Battlefield Korea
1950 - 1951
Part 3 - Decorations
Kapyong landscape,
Oil on hardboard, 1953 by Ivor Hele. The battlefield of Kapyong is typical of the terrain over which much of the Korean War was fought. [AWM ART40313]

Decorations (Part Three)
Index and Preface (Part One)
Biographical Note
  Authors Note  
  The Infantryman  
  The Royal Australian Regiment  
  The Korean War  
  The Preface  
  Battlefield Korea  
Battle Honours
The Royal Australian Regiment Korea 1950-1953
  Battlefield Korea  
    The War on Land  
    The Soldier  
    To The Yalu  
    Matyang San  
    The Static War  
  Battle Honours  
    The Korea Medal  
    The United Nations Medal For Korea  

Battle Honours (Part Two)
  Regimental Battle Honours  
    Maehwa San  
    Kowang San  
    Maryong San  
    The Samichon  

Decorations (Part Three)

Foreign Awards (Part Four)
The Silver Star
The Bronze Star
The Distinguished Flying Cross
The Air Medal
    Presidential Unit Citation  
    Mentioned in Dispatches  

Kapyong Video (Appendix 2)  

British Imperial Decoration Recipients
The George Cross

MADDEN, Horace William, Private (2/400186), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment

Private Horace William Madden enlisted for service on 3 July 1942 at the age of 18 years and served in New Guinea, Bougainville, and Morotai and with the occupation force in Japan until May 1947. On 19 August 1950 he re-enlisted for service with the Special Force in Korea and joined 3 RAR in Korea in November 1950. He was captured by Chinese Communist forces on 24 April 1951 near Kapyong during the action for which the US President awarded 3 RAR the distinguished unit citation for extraordinary heroism and outstanding performance of duties in action. He was a signaller attached to battalion headquarters at the time and suffered concussion prior to capture.

Private Madden was held prisoner until 6 November 1951, when he died of malnutrition and the effects of ill-treatment. During this period he openly resisted all enemy efforts to force him to collaborate, to such a degree that his name and example were widely known amongst the various groups of prisoners. Testimonials have been provided by officers and men from many units of the Commonwealth and allied forces which bear witness to the widespread effects of his heroism. Despite repeated beatings and many other forms of ill-treatment inflicted because of his defiance to his captors, Private Madden remained cheerful and optimistic. Although his defiance led to his being denied food and to his suffering severe malnutrition as a consequence, he was known to share his meagre supplies purchased from local Koreans with other prisoners who were sick. It must have been apparent to Private Madden that to pursue this course of action must eventually result in his death. This did not deter him and, for over six months, while becoming progressively weaker, he remained undaunted in his resistance. He would in no way cooperate with the enemy.

This gallant soldier's outstanding heroism was an inspiration to all his fellow prisoners.


The Distinguished Service Order

AUSTIN, Maurice, Lieutenant Colonel (1/10), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Shortly after assuming command of 1 RAR, Lieutenant Colonel Austin was given the task of defending the vital ground-Hill 355-against which the enemy had recently launched a heavy attack, seriously damaging the defences. At this time the battalion was patrolling aggressively and regularly attacking enemy patrols in the vicinity of its hard-won forward localities. Lieutenant Colonel Austin immediately began clearing no-man's land and restoring the defences of his sector, tasks made additionally hazardous by constant shelling and by the fact that most of the friendly minefields were unmarked.

Such was his enthusiasm and energy that, within three weeks, his battalion, by skilful, aggressive and determined patrolling, had driven the enemy from no-man's land. When his battalion was relieved two months later, it had launched a successful raid deep into enemy territory, done much to repair and improve the damaged defences, located and fenced a majority of the minefields and destroyed many underground shelters which the enemy had constructed close to friendly positions.

Throughout this period Lieutenant Colonel Austin worked tirelessly to accomplish his task, supervising the work of his battalion under fire and getting little rest. That his battalion responded and gave of its best was largely due to his personal example of leadership, determination and devotion to duty. 



FERGUSON, Ian Bruce, Major (Temporary Lieutenant Colonel) (2/37507), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1950

On the night of 23 April, 3 RAR-Lieutenant Colonel Ferguson's battalion-was holding a key defensive position alongside 27 British Commonwealth Brigade. During the night a ROK division withdrew in some disorder thought the brigade positions closely pursued by Chinese troops. In the resulting confusion, Lieutenant Colonel Ferguson's command post was overrun and Ferguson himself temporarily deafened by a mortar blast. Although severely handicapped in exercising his command, Lieutenant Colonel Ferguson remained undeterred and, throughout the next day, when his battalion felt the full brunt of the Chinese attack, he remained master of the situation. He paid frequent visits to his forward companies in a borrowed tank and inspired them to repel every effort to dislodge them, organising several strong counter-attacks.

Late in the afternoon of 24 April, Lieutenant Colonel Ferguson was ordered to withdraw his battalion to fresh positions. Lieutenant Colonel Ferguson organised and conducted this movement with such skill that, although the battalion remained in contact with the enemy, there were no casualties suffered. Throughout the entire action Lieutenant Colonel Ferguson displayed outstanding leadership. This was reflected in the magnificent performance of his battalion which inflicted such significant casualties that the Chinese attack was blunted and halted in this particular sector, despite the enemy forces' great superiority in numbers.



GERKE, Jack, Captain (Temporary Major) (5/400076), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Major Gerke displayed outstanding leadership during the attack on Point 355 on 4 October and again in subsequent actions against Point 317. On 4 October Major Gerke led his company in an attack on feature 172192. This attack and all his subsequent operations were extremely well organised and led. The company secured the feature against strong resistance, suffering one killed and eleven wounded. Casualties inflicted totalled sixteen enemy killed, three taken prisoner and a large number of enemy wounded.

During this action Major Gerke led his men with great skill and courage through the final stage of the assault, personally grenading the position and directing Bren fire regardless of his own personal safety. It was Major Gerke's own example which inspired his weary men to press home the final attack. The capture of this feature played an important part in the capture of the major feature Point 355.

On 5 October, Major Gerke led his company through D Company against the Point 317 feature. With remarkable skill and drive he secured the sheer-sided feature taking ten enemy soldiers prisoner. The speed of this attack contributed significantly to the success of the operation as a slower moving company would have permitted the enemy to reinforce Point 317. An enemy position on this feature would have caused a significant delay to the entire operation and many casualties to friendly troops in recapturing it.



HASSETT, Francis George, Lieutenant Colonel (2/27), 
3rd Battalion, RoyalAustralian Regiment, 1951

Lieutenant Colonel Hassett led his unit during Operation Commando (the first major Commonwealth Division attack from 3 to 8 October) with great skill, determination and courage. On 2 October, during daylight hours, he surreptitiously moved his battalion to an assembly position under the very nose of the enemy on Kowang San (1718) and, under cover of darkness and mist, he established infantry elements and moved half a squadron of tanks unobserved by the enemy on to Hill 199 (1920) in an encircling movement to the north, thereby ensuring that he retained the element of surprise. With his forces so disposed behind Hill 355, he was able to exert great pressure on the rear of the enemy which proved invaluable to the KOSB soldiers as they stormed Hill 355.

On the night of 4 October, Lieutenant Colonel Hassett positioned one rifle company on the Koyandai feature (2022) which runs north-east from Hill 317 (Maryang San). Once the company was established he launched a further company attack in a concentric movement against the strongly entrenched enemy. Under his cool and inspired leadership 3 RAR attacked with great vigour, supported by the accurate flanking fire of the tanks of 8 Hussars which he cleverly combined with artillery fire. In a series of stubborn actions which lasted over four hours, the Australians advanced along the spur for 3,000 yards, moving up towards the heights of Maryang San, completely destroying two enemy companies. The 3 RAR diggers finally surged forward to capture the brigade objective, Hill 317.

Having led this epic action from his command post well forward, Lieutenant Colonel Hassett moved at once to Hill 317 and organised the consolidation. The captured feature was subjected to an ever-increasing amount of enemy mortar and artillery fire. The next day, in an effort to reduce the pressure on the RNF soldiers who were fighting hard for Hill 217 to the south-west, the battalion advanced a further 600 yards along the ridge to the west in the face of considerable opposition.

Finally, on 7 October, the battalion captured 'The Hinge' (173223) in a splendid action and beat off an immediate counter-attack. The battalion maintained its position during that night under probably the heaviest hostile shelling of the Korean War and decisively beat off an enemy battalion-strength counter-attack. With 317 and The Hinge in friendly hands, the enemy relinquished Hill 217 leaving 287 dead and fifty taken prisoner. Lieutenant Colonel Hassett's conduct and handling of this battalion action was outstanding in every way.



HUGHES, Ronald Lawrence, Lieutenant Colonel (7/2), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

During the month in which Lieutenant Colonel Hughes assumed command of 3 RAR, his battalion lost eighteen officers, thirty-eight senior non-commissioned officers and a large number of experienced men due to the rotation policy of the time. As a consequence, the battalion suffered a severe drop in both operational and administrative efficiency. At the same time, 3 RAR assumed responsibility for the most active sector on the brigade front, occupying positions which were not in an advanced state of preparedness, while alterations to the brigade layout necessitated the preparation of several new localities. Enemy activity forward of the battalion area was considerable, shelling was constant and increasing in severity, and torrential rain caused a large proportion of the existing earthworks to collapse.

With great energy and determination, Lieutenant Colonel Hughes set about overcoming these difficulties. Through enlightened leadership, personal example and constant supervision in the course of which he exposed himself to considerable danger almost daily, he returned his battalion to its former level of efficiency. Under his skilful and aggressive leadership, the battalion destroyed company-sized enemy raids before they could reach his forward localities on three occasions, eventually drove the enemy from no-man's land and successfully raided a forward enemy position.

At the conclusion of fourteen weeks in the line, during which his battalion had patrolled vigorously, been subjected to constant shelling and suffered heavy casualties, Lieutenant Colonel Hughes commanded an efficient, battle-worthy unit, with very high morale which faced a subdued enemy. Throughout the period of his command, his conduct was worthy of the highest praise and he did much to maintain and enhance the reputation earned by the battalion during its two years in Korea.



MANN, Adrian Smith, Major (2/285), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

On the night of 10/11 December 1952, Major Mann led his company on a raid deep inside an enemy position. The training, preparation and rehearsal for this raid were carried out with a thoroughness which was characteristic of all Major Mann's work. The raid took place on an intensely cold night and started with an approach march of four hours' duration. Due to Major Mann's excellent leadership and careful planning the company was able to approach within a short distance of the enemy

position before being discovered, thus achieving complete surprise. When the assault on the position commenced, the enemy was found behind strong defences in greater numbers than anticipated. Appraising the situation quickly, Major Mann committed his reserve and assault pioneer section. Arriving on the position the force was met by heavy small arms fire and a shower of grenades, as a result of which Major Mann's Forward Observation Officer, batman and two signallers were wounded and he himself was twice blown off his feet. Although badly shaken, he rallied his men and, with great personal courage and determination, he drove the attack, which swept over the enemy, most of whom were killed.

Major Mann's personal example during this attack when he led his men forward with complete disregard for his own safety was an inspiration to all. After the assault was completed, Major Mann quickly reorganised his force and, maintaining tight control, withdrew it though enemy defensive fire to friendly lines without confusion and in minimal time. His route of withdrawal was carefully selected and confused the enemy, preventing any interference in the extrication. While careful planning ensured that the initial stages of the operation were successful, later, when the enemy position proved stronger than expected, it was solely due to the determination, outstanding courage, and personal example of Major Mann that the company's mission was completed. The conduct of this officer throughout the whole operation was beyond praise and is deserving of the highest recognition.


Bar To The Military Cross

NICHOLLS, Henry William, Captain (First bar) (1/8026), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment

During the ten months period from July1951 until May 1952, Captain Nicholls commanded B Company, 3 RAR. In the assault on Point 317 in October 1951, B Company spearheaded the attacks on two occasions clearing minor opposition to enable subsequent heavy attacks by following companies to be launched. The preliminary attacks were conducted at night in heavy fog over long distances and through extremely difficult terrain. Their success was largely due to careful planning and control by Captain Nicholls. The company was subjected to considerable enemy small arms and mortar fire during this period. On 7 October 1951, B Company launched an early morning attack against enemy occupying vital ground to the west of Point 317. During this attack B Company headquarters and the reserve platoon fought off two determined enemy counter-attacks in stand-up fights at close range in grass four feet high. Twenty enemy soldiers were killed and unknown numbers wounded, while B Company casualties totalled two killed and twelve wounded. A major factor in driving off these attacks was the courage, determination and example shown by Captain Nicholls. From this time onwards B Company was subjected to sustained and accurate shelling and mortaring. At night the enemy counter-attacked with at least one battalion, preceded by heavy artillery bombardment. This attack continued throughout the night until first light the following day when the enemy withdrew. By this time more than half of B Company had been killed or wounded. Enemy dead lying about the company perimeter were conservatively estimated at 120 while very large numbers had been wounded. Throughout this extremely difficult period, Captain Nicholls demonstrated outstanding bravery and inspired leadership. His personal example and great determination were major factors in the success of his company in what was a critical stage in the five-day battle. Captain Nicholls maintained this high standard in subsequent operations. He established a fine reputation as an able officer with exceptional qualities of courage and leadership. It should be noted that this officer was awarded his first MC for service at Tobruk during the World War II.


The Military Cross

BOUSFIELD, Brian Nicholson, Lieutenant (3/35021), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Lieutenant Bousfield provided outstanding service both as a platoon commander and in the many fighting reconnaissance patrols he led. On the night of 13/14 January 1953, he particularly distinguished himself when the patrol he was commanding was given the task of penetrating the enemy lines and taking a prisoner. On arrival at the objective, the patrol came under heavy and accurate enemy mortar and machine-gun fire followed by a swift and aggressive counter-attack. Under Lieutenant Bousfield's leadership, the patrol beat off this attack at close quarters enabling the snatch party, which had successfully inflicted casualties on the enemy in his trenches, to withdraw. Later, during the withdrawal to its position, the patrol encountered some thirty enemy soldiers who had cut the withdrawal route. Under his skilful control and leadership, the patrol fought its way through the enemy, inflicting severe casualties. Not long after, the enemy again attacked fiercely and Lieutenant Bousfield, by this time covering the withdrawal of the main body of the patrol with a small party, was severely wounded in the leg. He continued to command the group with great coolness and fortitude and refused to be evacuated until he was certain that the main body had reached its own lines. Lieutenant Bousfield's conduct during this action was typical of the courage, determination and devotion to duty he displayed at all times as a platoon commander both under shellfire and in close combat with the enemy.



CLARK, Lawrence George, Captain (1/116), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Lieutenant Clark displayed outstanding leadership and personal bravery during D Company's attacks on 5 October 1951. During the attack on feature 193225, his men formed the lead platoon, coming under heavy machine-gun and bazooka fire 150 yards from their objective. Disregarding his own safety, he encouraged his men, moving forward with his leading section, bringing his platoon into a successful assault onto dug-in positions from which the enemy engaged the platoon with heavy small arms fire and large quantities of grenades. In the reorganisation, Lieutenant Clark's platoon was weakened by the loss of his platoon sergeant and two of his section leaders, reducing the platoon to eighteen men with whom he had to continue an assault on the left of the feature 191222. Heavy machine-gun fire came from enemy positions on this feature as Lieutenant Clark again moved forward with his leading section, displaying the same quality of leadership and bravery. He killed enemy soldiers with his carbine and concluded a successful assault. Lieutenant Clark's actions on this day were highly instrumental in the company's substantial success. His platoon killed twenty-five enemy soldiers and captured ten in a series of attacks on a well-equipped enemy.



DENNESS, Archer Patterson, Captain (2/400335), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1950

On 22 October 1950, Captain Denness commanded C Company which was the advance guard during a drive north from Yongu in North Korea to link with elements of 11 US Airborne Division some three miles to the north. On reaching a position approximately one mile from the Airborne Division, his company came under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire from a wooded ridge to his front and right flank. Captain Denness quickly organised an attack on the position. As this attack was about to be launched, his company came under more machine-gun fire and rifle fire from approximately forty enemy entrenched in an orchard to his left flank. Despite heavy fire from three sides, Captain Denness resolutely pressed home his original attack, accounting for seventy-five enemy dead. As the attack progressed, his company came under further heavy fire from a position 400 yards to the north. Again Captain Denness quickly launched an attack, killing forty enemy soldiers. During this engagement, which lasted for two hours, his company killed 130 enemy for the loss of three wounded. Captain Denness's task was the more difficult as the proximity of elements of 11 US Airborne Division precluded the use of artillery or mortar fire. Throughout this bitter engagement, Captain Denness was constantly under heavy fire and showed little regard for his personal safety. His calm, resolute action was an inspiration to the entire company and ensured an early junction with the forward elements of 11 US Airborne Division who were in desperate need of support.



DODDRELL, Arthur Sydney Roy, Captain (1/400148), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

During his time with 3 RAR, Captain Doddrell served initially as second-in-command of B Company and, from mid-October 1951, as company commander of D Company. During the attacks on Point 317 in October 1951, Captain Doddrell was responsible for B Company's resupply and the evacuation of casualties, which later numbered more than half the company. This necessitated his leading porter trains over extremely difficult terrain though areas which were subjected to heavy shelling and sniper activity. Considerable casualties were suffered by these porter trains, which made several trips daily. The resupply of B Company and the evacuation of its casualties were to a large extent made possible by the driving energy and courage of Captain Doddrell in keeping the porter trains operating. In the heavy fighting in the latter part of October and November 1951 and also in subsequent battalion operations, Captain Doddrell served as a rifle company commander. In this capacity he proved an outstanding leader, noted for his coolness and reliability in action. Throughout his time with the battalion Captain Doddrell served as an inspiration and won the respect and admiration of all ranks.



FORBES, Patrick Oliver Giles, Lieutenant (4/7538), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Lieutenant Forbes commanded the assault pioneer platoon during 2 RAR's involvement in the Korean theatre. His work involved the checking and maintenance of minefield wire on the battalion front and the guiding of patrols through the minefields. He performed these dangerous tasks regularly and unflinchingly despite the fact that he frequently came under hostile fire. Lieutenant Forbes also supervised the construction of all the unit's defensive works. The main effort of defensive work construction was carried out on the forward company's area of 'The Hook' proper. This area had been subject to continual enemy attack and received considerable enemy fire. Lieutenant Forbes moved around the area each night supervising work. The fact that the defences of 'The Hook' were maintained and improved was largely due to Lieutenant Forbes' personal courage and efficiency and the fact that he discharged his duties with more than normal zeal and efficiency. He was constantly exposed to enemy fire and the dangers of unmarked or unfenced minefields. When an assault pioneer was required to carry out a dangerous or difficult task, Lieutenant Forbes was always ready to do so. On two separate occasions he was involved in recovering casualties from within a minefield. At all times, his personal courage, zeal and efficiency were a constant inspiration to those who worked under him and a great example to all members of the unit.

North Korea, November 1950. 
Two Australian soldiers 'mopping up' in a village. 
(AWM HOBJ1662)


HEARN, Bruce Barrington, Temporary Major (3/391), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Major Hearn commanded a rifle company during his service with the Regiment in Korea. Throughout this time his personal enthusiasm and determined leadership were largely instrumental in building and maintaining a high standard of morale and fighting efficiency within his company. In the Naechong sector in July and August 1952, he held an exposed position which was subject to heavy shelling and mortaring each day for many weeks. His company was required to patrol vigorously and executed this task with considerable success. During this period heavy rains caused serious damage to the defences, the repair of which required constant effort. Major Hearn's leadership throughout this period was exemplary. On Hill 355 in November and December 1952, his company was again subjected to regular shelling and required to patrol aggressively under the most difficult conditions of climate and terrain where the evacuation of casualties depended largely on the company commander's skill and foresight. Its patrolling in this sector was conspicuously successful and contributed in no small measure to the success of subsequent operations deep into enemy territory. In addition, Major Hearn's drive and energy contributed significantly to the improvement of defences in his company's area. During the entire period, his company rendered notable service and that it did so was largely due to Major Hearn's skilful and energetic leadership, capable management and untiring devotion to duty.



HUGHES, James Curnow, Lieutenant (4/7001), 
3rd Battalion, Royal AustralianRegiment, 1951

Lieutenant Hughes commanded 4 Platoon of B Company during the bitter 24-hour action of 7 October 1951 at feature 174224. He showed outstanding leadership and gallantry far above that demanded in the normal call of duty. He personally led his platoon in a grenade fight at a threatened portion of his company's perimeter driving the enemy off with heavy casualties. On reaching his objective he led his platoon against devastating enemy artillery and mortar fire and the repeated counter-attacks of the Chinese battalion against his company. The success of his company in this action was achieved largely through his personal drive and efficiency and display of bravery when he frequently exposed himself to enemy fire while encouraging the members of his platoon.



HUTCHESON, John Malcolm, Captain (2/502), 
28th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Engineers (attached RAR), 1953

Captain Hutcheson rendered outstanding service in the Commonwealth Division initially as pioneer officer in an infantry battalion and later as intelligence officer in 28 Field Engineer Regiment. As pioneer officer, one of his main tasks was the repair and maintenance of minefield fences. In the areas for which he was responsible there had been heavy shelling and considerable enemy activity over a long period and many of the fences had disappeared entirely. On his own initiative, Captain Hutcheson went out repeatedly night after night and frequently in daylight over a long period to locate and restore these fences. Many of these areas were very close to and in full view of enemy positions. On many occasions he came under fire. Owing to the risk from unmarked mines, he did much of his work on his own, since parties of infantry could not safely enter these areas until the minefields had been located and marked. When his battalion came into reserve he continued to render invaluable assistance to succeeding infantry units and engineers by volunteering to accompany their patrols as a guide in mined areas which he alone knew. Through his utterly fearless devotion to duty, dogged perseverance and lack of regard for his own personal safety, he succeeded in locating and restoring most of the minefields in the area, thereby averting many friendly casualties. As intelligence officer in the Engineer Regiment, he not only worked himself unsparingly in normal routine duties, but also personally completed the valuable and meticulous re-survey of minefields in the Kansa Line. His initiative, enthusiasm and keen devotion to duty made his an outstanding contribution to the operational efficiency of the regiment and the division and his services merit the highest praise.



AMES, William Brian, Lieutenant (3/35036), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

On the night of 7/8 November 1952, Lieutenant James was in command of a fighting patrol of two non-commissioned officers and ten men. His task was to occupy the Calgary feature with the object of killing or capturing any enemy encountered. The approach to the feature was made without contact but, as the patrol commenced to move onto the enemy, movement was detected further ahead. Lieutenant James quickly ordered the patrol to deploy and at the same time started forward in an assault in the area where the enemy was heard. However, within a short distance of the enemy, there was a heavy explosion in the midst of the patrol, which resulted in the immediate wounding of five of the thirteen members including Lieutenant James and his two non-commissioned officers. In spite of the fact that he himself was severely wounded, having had his left foot completely blown off and his right leg broken and mangled, Lieutenant James refused to relinquish command of his patrol. Realising that it was not possible to continue with his task, he set about organising an evacuation of the other wounded, all of whom were less seriously wounded than he was. This was a lengthy business as the patrol had only one stretcher. As a result he waited in great pain for over thirty minutes after he had evacuated the last of the wounded before the stretcher party returned for him. Only then did he allow himself to be taken to the rear. Throughout this difficult time he cheered and encouraged the members of the patrol who remained with him and directed other members of the party who were not concerned with the immediate evacuation of casualties to engage a party of the enemy who came forward to reconnoitre. The example set by Lieutenant James and his leadership, devotion to duty, self-sacrifice and extreme fortitude when in great personal distress was an inspiration to members of his battalion.



KAYLER-THOMSON, Clarence David, Major (45778), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Since April 1952 Major Kayler-Thomson served as a company commander, applying himself untiringly to maintaining a high standard of morale and battle efficiency within his company. That he succeeded was demonstrated by the large number of successful patrol actions his company conducted during which heavy casualties were constantly inflicted on the enemy at comparatively small cost to his men. Shortly after his arrival in this theatre, Major Kayler-Thomson's company took over the defence at Point 159, an important feature under constant observation by the enemy. For the first two weeks of its occupancy, the company was subjected to continuous heavy and accurate mortar and artillery fire. Though the majority of his men had little combat experience, Major Kayler-Thomson moved freely amongst them under heavy fire, and so inspired them that their spirit remained strong, in spite of the constant nervous strain to which all ranks were subjected. His leadership and determination on many subsequent occasion his company took over a forward position on Hill 355 at a time when the enemy was patrolling aggressively in the area, attacking friendly patrols in the vicinity of friendly defended localities. Through the skilful planning and organisation of his patrols, within a few days Major Kayler-Thomson cleared the enemy forces from the area with such effect that they did not return during the company's tour of that sector. During this time he also directed the successful and skilful attack on suspected enemy positions on the southern slopes of Point 277. Throughout this time, Major Kayler-Thomson displayed outstanding qualities of leadership, devotion to duty and endurance under fire. These qualities, coupled with his aggressive spirit, were largely responsible for the high degree of operational efficiency achieved by his company.



KEYS, Alexander George William, Captain (2/40035), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1950

Throughout his twelve-month service with 3 RAR, Captain Keys displayed outstanding ability and courage thus establishing his reputation as one of this battalion's most competent company commanders. An example of his outstanding conduct occurred during the advance of 27 British Commonwealth Brigade towards Chongchon in March 1951. A Company was ordered to capture a vital feature known as Hill 410 but was held up by a superior enemy force that had dug in on the objective. Captain Keys, officer commanding D Company, was ordered to attack and capture the feature from a ridge parallel to that occupied by A Company, thus alleviating the pressure on that company. Captain Keys moved D Company forward under enemy mortar and sniper fire and, through this aggressive action, cleaned out several enemy pockets just short of his objective. At this stage D Company came under enemy fire from the left flank and from the feature immediately above the company. Despite this fire, Captain Keys fought his company forward and, as the result of his bold and aggressive action, secured the feature and enabled A Company to advance and secure its objective. The success of this action was entirely due to the clear, calm and aggressive action of Captain Keys who, despite heavy enemy fire, was to be found with the forward elements of his company directing all phases of the attack. In subsequent periods of heavy fighting from September to November 1951, Captain Keys, now adjutant of the battalion, maintained the same high standard. This officer continually displayed the highest standards of leadership and through his example, maintained the finest traditions of the service.



LLOYD, Russel David Ferrers, Lieutenant ( 5/7015 ), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Lieutenant Lloyd served as a rifle platoon commander and then as a machine-gun platoon commander during his tour of Korea. Lieutenant Lloyd's skill and coolness under fire as a patrol commander was demonstrated by his actions on the night of 6/7 January 1953 when he was ordered to lead a fighting patrol to an area through which the enemy was known to move. On arrival at the ambush site, he placed one group, including himself, in position. The remainder of the patrol was moving to its position nearby when it was heavily engaged at close quarters by enemy small arms fire and grenades. Lieutenant Lloyd immediately directed the fire of his group onto the enemy to cover the withdrawal of the remainder of the patrol. At this stage, communications between the two groups failed and Lieutenant Lloyd, believing that the remainder of the patrol was unable to disengage, led an assault on the enemy position. Notwithstanding intense enemy fire, he pressed home his attack against superior numbers until he was certain that the remainder of the patrol was clear. During the assault he was twice wounded. Lieutenant Lloyd then directed artillery fire onto the enemy position and, after reorganising his patrol, withdrew to his own lines without further casualties. Lieutenant Lloyd's courage and initiative as a patrol commander and the ever-present cheerfulness and efficiency of his men under the most adverse of circumstances have proven him a leader of outstanding ability.



LUCAS, Gilmer John, Lieutenant (3/40105), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Since joining this unit in October 1951, Lieutenant Lucas's conduct has been outstanding. On 2 July 1952, as a rifle platoon commander given the task of destroying enemy bunkers, he took part in a daylight raid on Hill 227. As the bunkers had been collapsed by artillery fire, Lieutenant Lucas, after directing flamethrowers into the bunker entrances, commenced to dig though the top of one of them. Although in full view of the enemy post and under heavy medium machine-gun fire and badly shaken by an explosion inside the bunker, Lieutenant Lucas continued with his work and, at the same time, organised a party to dig through the roof of the second bunker. He ceased his efforts only when ordered to withdraw. On the night of 12/13 August 1952, Lieutenant Lucas was commanding an ambush patrol which was engaged by superior enemy forces from three sides. Having inflicted serious casualties on the enemy, he successfully withdrew his own patrol including two wounded soldiers. Late in October 1952 Lieutenant Lucas took command of the assault pioneer platoon. As a result of the enemy attack on Kowang San on the night of 23/24 October, many of the minefield fences had been blown away by shellfire and it was dangerous for friendly troops to patrol forward of their lines. Lieutenant Lucas, during his first fifteen days in this area, carried out personal reconnaissance of the minefields. This reconnaissance was conducted over difficult terrain, with little information and despite aggressive enemy patrolling. It was largely due to his efforts that the minefields were made safe for friendly patrols to successfully engage the enemy.



MANNETT, David John, Lieutenant (3/35012), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1950

On 29 October 1950, 27 British Commonwealth Brigade was acting as advance guard to the 24 Division advance to the Yalu River. The 3rd Battalion, in conjunction with D Company, 89 Tank Battalion, was vanguard battalion. During the advance, the battalion was held up by a number of dug-in and camouflaged tanks supported by infantry on closely wooded high ground to the left of the road. The ground completely dominated the divisional axis of advance which, at this stage, was consigned to a mountain pass entering a small valley. At 1.30 p.m., after air strikes had accounted for five tanks, D Company, 3 RAR, was ordered to seize and hold the ground on which the enemy positions were located. The company plan was to send a platoon of tanks along the road to a point opposite the high ground. This was to be followed by a platoon of infantry commanded by Lieutenant Mannett mounted on a platoon of tanks with orders to turn off to the left of the road and secure the high feature near the road. D Company, less one platoon, was to move across the valley and secure the remainder of the high ground which consisted of two smaller features. The platoon of infantry under Lieutenant Mannett succeeded in securing the objective despite heavy opposition from enemy small arms and mortar fire. At this stage the remainder of the company was pinned down in a paddy field by small arms fire coming from its objectives. Lieutenant Mannett divided the fire of the platoon of tanks and his own platoon onto the other two platoons' objectives, thereby allowing the company to move. At this stage Lieutenant Mannett's platoon came under heavy mortar and small arms fire from a higher knoll to his right rear. Without tank support he swung his platoon onto this knoll, captured it and killed fifteen enemy infantrymen. At about 6.15 p.m. it was reported that the enemy was preparing to counter-attack Lieutenant Mannett's position and, at 7.00 p.m. the enemy launched its attack. The diggers sat fast in their fire trenches holding their fire until the enemy was extremely close. They then opened fire killing thirty-two enemy soldiers. At the time the counter-attack was launched about fifteen enemy attempted to infiltrate the position inside the platoon's perimeter. The remainder were destroyed outside. This action accounted for a total of forty-seven enemy soldiers killed and one wounded. It further secured the battalion area and the main axis of advance. The success of this platoon's operations that day was entirely due to the cool and efficient manner in which Lieutenant Mannett commanded his men. Had he not secured these positions, the brigade would not have been able to resume the advance the following day. The platoon's tactics provide an object lesson in platoon defence and effectively demonstrate how determined troops that are well dug-in can hold off a superior force by holding their fire till the last moment, despite simultaneous attacks from multiple directions.

Korea, May 1952. Diggers at work building their platoon headquarters dugout. (AWM HOBJ3090)


MONTGOMERIE, Leonard Montague, Lieutenant (4/400059), 
3rd Battalion,Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 24 April 1951 during operations in the Chukton-ni area, 4 Platoon of B Company, 3 RAR, was ordered to attack and capture an enemy-held strong point. The enemy was entrenched in well dug-in positions, was well armed and had repulsed previous attacks on this position, continuing to defend with stubborn resistance. Lieutenant Montgomerie, leading 4 Platoon, advanced across open ground towards the enemy strong point. During the advance his platoon came under fire from the objective and from the right flank. Despite casualties, he pressed on with the attack. When his platoon was approximately thirty yards from the objective, it came under intense fire from

light machine-guns, rifles, sub-machine guns and hand grenades. Showing complete disregard for his personal safety and despite being outnumbered by approximately two to one, he led a bayonet charge against the first line of trenches. After bitter hand-to-hand fighting, the first trench was secured. The enemy continued to resist from dug-outs within the position and from trenches on the other side. Lieutenant Montgomerie, displaying outstanding initiative, manoeuvred his section so that these positions could be grenaded and finally assaulted by bayonet. Later when his platoon came under fire from the retreating enemy, he again led an assault and killed twenty enemy soldiers and captured four prisoners. After this action, a total of 67 enemy dead was counted in and around this position. During this operation, Lieutenant Montgomerie displayed outstanding qualities of leadership, courage and daring. He was an inspiration to his men, cheering and urging them on against an enemy that was dug-in, and superior in numbers and firepower. The success of this action was instrumental in securing B Company's position, enabling the company to continue further operations unhindered.



PEARS, Maurice Bertram, Lieutenant (2/35017), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Throughout his ten-month service with 3 RAR, Lieutenant Pears displayed courage and ability of a very high order. During the heavy fighting in October/November 1951 in the area of Point 317, Lieutenant Pears commanded a platoon from C Company. He led the platoon with great dash and determination and was, to a large extent, responsible for the success achieved by his company in that operation. At all times throughout periods of heavy shelling and close-quarter fighting, his courage and qualities of leadership were outstanding. Although wounded at one stage of this action, he carried on for several days until a comparatively quiet period permitted his being evacuated for treatment. In subsequent operations, Lieutenant Pears maintained this high standard. In a company raid on Point 227 in March 1952, Lieutenant Pears commanded the supporting platoon and his steadiness despite the heavy enemy shelling and mortaring which killed and wounded five men sharing his own and adjacent pits was an inspiration to the remaining members of the platoon. All patrols led by Lieutenant Pears were carefully planned and conducted with skill and determination. He established a reputation as being one of the most able platoon commanders in the battalion.



PEMBROKE, Arthur Thomas, Lieutenant (1/7003), 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951.

On 6 October 1951, Lieutenant Pembroke and his platoon had been ordered to move forward of the main company position to try to locate the enemy. During this movement, his platoon struck heavy opposition at MR 176223. The enemy attacked Lieutenant Pembroke's platoon continuously from 7.00 a.m. on the morning of 6 October 1951 until 6.00 p.m. when B Company, 3 RAR, relieved it. During the period Lieutenant Pembroke's platoon occupied Point 176223, it was subjected to continuous heavy artillery, mortar and small arms fire as well as repeated counter-attacks by the enemy. Due to the platoon commander's cool and clever planning, the enemy was repulsed each time leaving dead and wounded behind. Throughout the day, Lieutenant Pembroke, without regard for his own safety, moved from section to section encouraging his men and inspiring confidence. Lieutenant Pembroke's platoon was responsible for killing nineteen enemy soldiers, wounding at least thirty and capturing seven. During this action and all actions that followed, Lieutenant Pembroke, through his many acts of bravery and coolness under fire, inspired confidence in his men. At no time did he consider his own safety before that of his men.



RICHARDSON, Rupert Peter, Captain (20941), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Captain Richardson commanded B Company, 3 RAR, from May to October 1952. During this time, through personal example and outstanding leadership, he developed his company into an efficient and aggressive fighting force second to none in the battalion. The calibre of Captain Richardson's leadership and the high quality of his company were ably demonstrated on the night of 13/14 August 1952 when, under his command, B Company successfully raided the enemy-held feature Point 75. The preparations for the attack, the conduct of the assault and the withdrawal to friendly lines were an outstanding example of the pattern a company raid should follow and were largely a product of Captain Richardson's leadership, determination and personal example throughout the whole operation.



SHELTON, Jeffrey James, Captain (3/395), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

During the twelve-month period from May 1951 until May 1952, Captain Shelton commanded A Company, 3 RAR. Under his very capable leadership, the company fought extremely well and was very successful. During the operations against Point 317 in October 1951, A Company attacked an enemy company strongly entrenched in a series of features commanding one of the two approaches to Point 317. Captain Shelton fought his company through heavy small arms, mortar and artillery fire with great courage and ability and cleared each feature in turn. The company suffered twenty killed and wounded but inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy including a confirmed twenty-five dead, also taking two prisoners. Through this action A Company prevented the enemy company reinforcing or engaging the main thrust against Point 317 on the northern axis. Later in the operation, when heavy casualties were being suffered by the battalion, Captain Shelton led his men through heavy shelling, carrying out wounded and bringing forward ammunition. In all subsequent actions by the battalion, Captain Shelton maintained the same high standard. A courageous and able company commander, Captain Shelton's personal example and sound tactics ensured that his company played an important part in the success of this battalion.



SKIPPER, Jack Harold, Lieutenant (5/7012), 
28th Commonwealth Brigade (attached RAR), 1952

On the night of 27 August 1952, Lieutenant Skipper commanded a fighting patrol of around thirteen men who were to operate the 'Boot'. As they approached the creek crossing in that area, an enemy patrol was heard moving forward. Lieutenant Skipper withdrew his scouts and took up an ambush on the crossing. As the enemy soldiers attempted to cross, they were engaged and at least five were killed. The patrol was then subjected to enemy fire. Lieutenant Skipper quickly reorganised his patrol and withdrew it from the scene of the action without casualties. On the night of 15/16 November 1952, Lieutenant Skipper commanded a patrol sent out to collect a dead enemy soldier located in the middle of a minefield at Calgary. Knowing the great importance attached to the recovery of this body, he probed the minefield for two hours until he had cleared a path through which he could pull the body. The night was extremely dark and very little information was available concerning the minefield. During this operation he displayed a high degree of bravery and initiative. On the night of 16/17 November 1952, Lieutenant Skipper commanded a patrol which was sent out to secure Calgary, a short time after a standing patrol had been driven back. Lieutenant Skipper conducted a reconnaissance in this area and moved a fighting patrol forward and was attacked by a large enemy party. Having inflicted many casualties and despite being wounded himself, he successfully withdrew his patrol to a new ambush position. Lieutenant Skipper's example and leadership during this action had a great effect on the morale of his company as he was, at that stage, the only remaining platoon commander.



STEWART, James David, Lieutenant (2/35018), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

During the attack by 3 RAR against Point 317 in October 1951, Lieutenant Stewart was second-in-command of his signal platoon and was mainly responsible for the line parties. Without hesitation he led line parties through heavy shelling and mortaring to restore and lay lines to forward companies for long hours at a time. The line parties under Lieutenant Stewart worked in constant danger of ambush and were frequently the target of snipers. Lieutenant Stewart's physical endurance and his cheerful acceptance of any task given him irrespective of the danger, were an inspiration to all. From November 1951 onwards, Lieutenant Stewart served as rifle platoon commander. On numerous patrols and under heavy enemy fire, he constantly displayed courage and leadership of a very high order and was an outstanding platoon commander.



THOMSON, David Scott, Major (3/328), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

On the morning of 2 July 1952, Major Thomson displayed outstanding skill and gallantry in leading A Company, 1 RAR, on a raid against well-organised and entrenched enemy strong points on Hill 227. Displaying dash and determination of a very high order, Major Thomson quickly gained the top of Hill 227 and, with complete disregard for his own personal safety, directed his two forward platoons onto their objectives. He continued to direct operations despite heavy and accurate enemy small arms, mortar and artillery fire which scored two direct hits on his company headquarters killing his wireless operator and wounding the artillery forward observation officer attached to his headquarters as well as two other members. With amazing calm and tenacity, Major Thomson so inspired his men that they remained in possession of the enemy strong point for ninety minutes, blasting and wrecking the enemy defences with flame and specially prepared high explosive grenades. It was only when he was running out of ammunition and on receipt of orders to do so, that he finally withdrew. During the withdrawal he remained until the last, and only left the position when he was sure that all his wounded had been evacuated safely. By this stage he had been wounded in the right arm but refused to have his wound attended to until he had reorganised his company back in its base. Throughout the entire action, Major Thomson displayed qualities of leadership, courage and devotion to duty of the highest order and his conduct was an inspiration to all.



WATERTON, John Thomas Max Charles, Captain (2/37619),
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Captain Waterton was appointed second-in-command of B Company, 3 RAR, in May 1952. Throughout his time in Korea, he consistently proved himself a most gallant and capable officer, significantly contributing to the high morale and operational efficiency of his company. His imperturbable and courageous manner while discharging his duties in the company area under heavy shell and mortar fire and his initiative and determination as a patrol leader were an inspiration to all ranks. On the night of 28/29 September 1952, Captain Waterton particularly distinguished himself as the leader of an ambush patrol of one officer and fourteen men. The patrol had just adopted its ambush position when an enemy force subsequently estimated to be of company strength moved across its front and round its flank. Holding the fire of his men until about fifty of the enemy soldiers were in view at close range, he engaged them with heavy fire inflicting severe casualties and halting their advance completely. Anticipating that the enemy would regroup and make a direct assault on his position, Captain Waterton withdrew his ambush to an alternative position, thirty yards to the rear. From here he evacuated three members of the patrol who had been wounded in the action and then, when the enemy forces assaulted his previous position, he engaged them with small arms fire and grenades, once more inflicting heavy casualties.

Such was the success of his plan that the enemy soldiers discontinued the activity and withdrew to their own lines. Through his determination not to break off the action until he had inflicted maximum casualties on the enemy with the small force at his command, Captain Waterton showed outstanding leadership and courage and, moreover, prevented what was probably intended to be an enemy attack on friendly forward localities. This action was an example of the high standard of fighting efficiency and devotion to duty that this officer consistently maintained.



WILLIAMS, Dennis North, Lieutenant (3/10128), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Lieutenant Williams was a rifle platoon commander throughout the entire period of the unit's service in action in Korea. He led over one hundred patrols many of which made contact with the enemy and all of which were characterised by the skilful and determined manner with which he conducted these actions. During the attack on Point 227 on 2 July 1952, his platoon was responsible for covering the withdrawal of the attacking troops to their own lines. His splendid example of courage and leadership under heavy fire on this occasion was largely responsible for the successful withdrawal of friendly troops to their own lines. Again, during the attack by another unit on Point 227 on a different occasion, Lieutenant Williams led his platoon into enemy territory in a gallant and well-executed action, remaining in position under heavy enemy fire until all the wounded had been evacuated. His action undoubtedly saved the lives of many members of the original force. Lieutenant Williams' consistent and outstanding courage, leadership and devotion to duty throughout his tour have been an inspiration and source of pride to all ranks of his battalion.



YACOPETTI, Charles Peter, Lieutenant (6/7013), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Lieutenant Yacopetti commanded a rifle platoon from November 1952 until he was declared missing in action on 26 May 1953. During this time he earned an outstanding reputation as a skilful and fearless leader and one who, by his desire to come to grips with the enemy, could be relied on to inflict heavy casualties on any enemy with whom his patrols made contact. Lieutenant Yacopetti led twenty fighting and reconnaissance patrols and his courage and coolness under fire, his aggressive outlook and concern for the welfare of those under his command are typified in the patrol action from which he did not return. On the night of 25/26 May 1953, Lieutenant Yacopetti commanded a fighting patrol of seventeen men which was attacked at close quarters by three groups of the enemy, each of approximately twenty men. During the first part of the action, in which he displayed great coolness and courage, Lieutenant Yacopetti's patrol, under his leadership, fought off and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy, despite the fact that he himself was wounded soon after the beginning of the action. Shortly afterwards a further fierce assault was launched by the enemy. Despite the fact that his patrol had suffered heavy casualties and he himself had been wounded for the second time and was unable to move, Lieutenant Yacopetti again skilfully controlled his patrol's fire during this attack, this time dispersing the enemy. When the patrol was finally ordered to withdraw, he ordered that the other wounded men be evacuated first. Because of his decision, all except two of the wounded, of which one was Lieutenant Yacopetti, could be evacuated before the enemy again attacked and overran the area. Notwithstanding several searches late into the night, Lieutenant Yacopetti could not be found.



YOUNG, James Hay-Archer, Lieutenant (2/40101), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Lieutenant Young showed outstanding initiative and courage during the operations on 5 October 1951. At 11.20 a.m., D Company was moving up the very steep sides of feature 196224 in heavy fog. When D Company was almost one third of the way up the slope, the fog suddenly cleared, revealing the Chinese occupying a strong position on top of the feature. Heavy fighting ensued, and the officer commanding D Company was wounded almost immediately. At once Lieutenant Young took command of the company, implemented a change of plan involving the whole company and secured the feature. His actions showed great steadiness and initiative. After the reorganisation, Lieutenant Young and his company attacked features 193224 and 191221. These attacks were well organised and brilliantly led. Lieutenant Young showed complete fearlessness and firm control, inspiring his company to complete a difficult action against heavy odds. In these attacks against at least one company of deeply entrenched enemy, very well equipped with automatic weapons and bazookas, Lieutenant Young's company killed sixty-eight of the enemy with small arms fire and grenades and took thirty prisoners. Much of the success of this operation was due to the courage and steadiness of Lieutenant Young.

Korea c. 1951. A dug-in command post offers cover from fire and from the bitter Korean cold. (AWM HOBJ2430)

Bar To The Distinguished Conduct Medal

ROWLINSON, William Josiah, Sergeant (2/400239), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment

On the morning of 5 October 1951, D Company, 3 RAR, attacked the ridge leading to Hill 317. The action comprised four separate attacks, three of which involved D Company's 12 Platoon. In the early stages of the first attack the company commander was wounded and was replaced by the officer commanding 12 Platoon. Sergeant Rowlinson then assumed command of 12 Platoon. Immediately 12 Platoon was committed to the attack to bolster the assault and Sergeant Rowlinson's quick, cool and inspiring leadership contributed largely to its success. During the attack on the second feature in the face of heavy small arms, machine-gun and 3.5 bazooka fire, he personally led his platoon in the assault, displaying initiative and directing fire with firm control. Early in this action he was wounded in the left leg, but without seeking medical aid he continued to follow the plan of attack and lead his platoon in a further assault on the third feature in the face of continued heavy enemy small arms and machine-gun fire. At this stage he quickly reorganised on the third objective and contacted his company commander by wireless, informing him of enemy dispositions on the fourth ridge. His quick thinking and appreciation enabled the company to successfully conclude the operation on the fourth objective. Sergeant Rowlinson's platoon accounted for thirty-two enemy dead and took fourteen prisoners. Throughout the operation Sergeant Rowlinson showed complete disregard for his own personal safety and inspired his platoon by his own example. Sergeant Rowlinson was previously recommended for a DCM by this unit in April 1951, and again has proved himself an outstanding, brave and intelligent soldier.

Diggers shake hands with two Chinese soldiers. (AWM HOBJ4521)

The Distinguished Conduct Medal

BURNETT, James, Lance Corporal (1/400092), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 4 October 1951 during the attack by 1 KOSB battalion onto feature 355, C Company, 3 RAR, was ordered to move to the rear of the feature and attack the enemy from that quarter. The enemy was entrenched on the high ground MR184196 Majon-mi sheet. C Company launched its attack at 9.00 a.m. and, by 10.15 a.m., was on the high ground engaged in close-quarter fighting with the Chinese forces. At approximately 10.45 a.m., 7 Platoon was instructed to advance along the ridge towards the main objective, 355, to destroy or dislodge the enemy. The platoon commander 7 Platoon reported that his platoon was being held up by superior numbers of enemy entrenched in bunkers in well-prepared positions. The company commander moved forward to investigate the position and observed Lance Corporal Burnett with a Bren gun approximately 25 yards in front of the remainder of his platoon. Lance Corporal Burnett was throwing grenades into the enemies' pits. He then picked up his Bren gun and, firing it from the hip, dashed over the open ground at the enemy on whom he was inflicting heavy casualties. Throughout this action Lance Corporal Burnett was under heavy mortar fire, grenade and small arms fire. Once Lance Corporal Burnett had gained the initiative and dislodged the Chinese from their well dug-in positions, the remainder of the section was able to advance and clean out the enemy who were killed, taken prisoner or fled in panic, leaving behind them large quantities of weapons, ammunition and equipment. Lance Corporal Burnett's act of bravery was far above the normal course of his duty and his aggressive action enabled him to gain the initiative and so dislodge a very strong and determined enemy.



MORRISON, Edward John, Sergeant (3/1967), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

On the night of 24/25 January 1953, Sergeant Morrison was in command of a small patrol detailed to move deep into enemy lines to take prisoners. Sergeant Morrison reached his objective-a communication trench approximately 1,500 yards into enemy territory-and entered the trench to investigate. The patrol came upon two enemy soldiers who gave the alarm. Sergeant Morrison himself killed both the enemy soldiers and then withdrew his patrol under machine-gun fire and rifle fire which was coming from a second enemy position. As Sergeant Morrison was withdrawing from his objective a neighboring patrol was attacked by an estimated company-sized group of enemy. Sergeant Morrison immediately contacted a third patrol and, taking control of the composite force of eighteen men, went to the assistance of the other patrol. As they approached the firefight a further enemy party of twenty approached from the rear. Sergeant Morrison formed his men into a fire position and, withholding his fire until the enemy was no more than eight feet away, opened fire with such devastating effect that all twenty of the enemy soldiers were killed without firing a shot. So close were they, in fact, that the leading enemy fell dead among the patrol. At this stage the hill feature occupied by the first patrol was completely overrun and the enemy diverted his force towards Sergeant Morrison's group. Sergeant Morrison then moved onto the higher ground and awaited the enemy approach. A party of six enemy soldiers approached from the rear and Sergeant Morrison and one non-commissioned officer killed all six at close combat range. The enemy then commenced a series of attacks up the ridge towards Sergeant Morrison's group, at the same time endeavouring to out-flank the patrol with a second force. Each time the enemy attacked, Sergeant Morrison personally led a charge of automatic weapons into the enemy attacking force then, in the respite that this attack afforded, quickly moved his patrol further up the ridgeline to counter the enemy movement. Each time he moved, Sergeant Morrison picked up his wounded and carried them on. After the fourth attack the enemy broke contact and Sergeant Morrison led his patrol safely back to his own lines having killed fifty of the enemy. By the exercise of most skilful, cool and aggressive leadership, Sergeant Morrison was able to extricate his patrol from a perilous position and withdraw it to safety, while his superb personal courage and splendid example inspired his men to continue to inflict heavy casualties on the enemy throughout the action.



OPIE, Leonard Murray, Corporal (4/400006), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1950

During the advance of the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade north-east of Chipyong Ni, 3 RAR was held up by an enemy strong point-feature 614. On two occasions attacks were made in an attempt to dislodge the enemy from the feature, but owing to his strong defensive position they proved unsuccessful. On the morning of 27 February 1951, 12 Platoon, D Company, was ordered to attack and capture feature 614. After air and artillery bombardment, 12 Platoon attacked with medium machine-gun support with Corporal Opie in command of the leading section. The men attacked up a steep and narrow ridgeline, over open ground for a distance of 200 yards. The section advanced to within ten yards of the first objective and came under fire from three enemy positions. One of these was a machine-gun. Corporal Opie immediately led his section in an attack on the three enemy strong points. Seven enemy soldiers were killed by small arms fire and grenades. The section advanced and secured the ridgeline that was the first part of the objective. During the attack Corporal Opie used his Owen gun from the hip and periodically used a rifle he was carrying to engage the enemy on the rear part of feature 614. Corporal Opie disposed of at least three of the enemy with grenades and rifle fire. The section then reorganised and Corporal Opie called for more grenades to continue the second part of the objective. Before advancing on the second group of enemy pits, Corporal Opie used enemy weapons captured during the initial assault so as to conserve his own ammunition. He used enemy grenades and, later in the attack, employed an MI rifle and a carbine. Immediately he had reorganised the section, Corporal Opie led a further attack on the second part of the objective. At this stage the section came under fire from two further enemy pits, one containing a machine-gun. Corporal Opie continued to advance and silenced the enemy pits with small arms fire and grenades. By then one of his men had been badly wounded and Corporal Opie, further exposing himself to fire from enemy positions some distance down the ridge from the feature, pulled the wounded man to a covered position. With the key point of the enemy defence silenced, Corporal Opie held his position and his platoon commander moved through with the second section to complete the consolidation of the objective. Through his unselfish devotion to duty, initiative and great courage, Corporal Opie made the capture of the position possible, thereby enabling the battalion and, subsequently, the brigade to continue the advance.



ROWLINSON, William Josiah, Corporal (2/400239), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 23 April 1951, the battalion was defending the area of Mokton-Ni. D Company had been assigned the role of right flank protection on feature 504 and the ridgeline to the north-east. Corporal Rowlinson, section leader of 12 Platoon, occupied the left forward section of this forward platoon. During the first night of occupation (23 April 1951), an enemy probing patrol attempted to penetrate his section position and was repulsed. On the morning of 24 April 1951, an enemy group of platoon strength launched continuous attacks against this section position for a period of five to six hours, only to be driven back again and again sustaining heavy casualties. During these attacks Corporal Rowlinson and six members of his section were wounded. The wounded were evacuated but Corporal Rowlinson remained on duty and continued to lead his section until the section was ordered to withdraw. Corporal Rowlinson, although wounded, displayed leadership of a very high order and outstanding courage by holding the section together during the continuous attacks on his section position and thereby securing the company position vital to the successful conduct of the battalion defence. It was later estimated that, during these attacks, the enemy threw approximately 150 men at the position and suffered twenty-five known dead, killed in front of Corporal Rowlinson's section.


The Georges Medal

MURRAY T. M., Sergeant (NX 135 80 ), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment,1950

On the night of 25/26 October 1950, Sergeant Murray, a stretcher-bearer, crossed the river running through Pakchon with the two forward companies in order to arrange evacuation of casualties. He assisted with treatment of the wounded in forward positions-under fire in the early stages-and then returned to the river to arrange their evacuation to the Regimental Aid Post. One span of the bridge had been knocked down, leaving a twenty-foot drop to water level, with about ten yards of river still to cross. The position was further complicated by a rapidly rising tide, so that this route had become impassable to stretcher cases. Initially, Sergeant Murray organised a boat to cross from the safe side of the river, only to have it sink. Further attempts were successful and patients were safely evacuated. At about 1.00 a.m., however, as further casualties were ready to be evacuated, the bridge came under sporadic sniper fire. Sergeant Murray again organised the evacuation with complete disregard for his personal safety. Standing on the bridge he proceeded to draw a damaged boat, carrying a serious stretcher case and a stretcher-bearer by means of rope. Unfortunately the tide was too strong; the boat grazed a pylon of the bridge and sank in about seven feet of water. Sergeant Murray raced to one end of the bridge, removed some of his outer clothing and supported the patient through a distance of ten to fifteen yards of deep water, when bystanders finally came to his aid. Sergeant Murray received treatment at the Regimental Aid Post for cold and exposure, and returned to duty. Sergeant Murray's work would have earned him a commendation if only for his initiative and resourcefulness which was beyond expectation; his leadership in organising boat transport across the river when all chance of evacuating casualties seemed to fade as the tide rose is deserving also of special note. He showed no regard for his personal safety by repeatedly exposing himself to fire on the open bridge and further by his gallant rescue, in deep, icy cold water, of a fully clothed and seriously wounded patient-which unquestionably saved the patient's life.

Hill 159 area. A patrol passes a British Centurion tank as it leaves the road in the direction of no man's land. 
(AWM HOBJ4388)

Bar To The Military Medal

WHITE, Albert Mitchell, Private (3/400816), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Private White was a Bren gunner in a fighting patrol of seventeen men which was attacked on the night of 25/26 May 1953 by two groups of enemy, each of approximately twenty men. As the first enemy group approached to close quarters, Private White stood up, regardless of the enemy's fire, and fired his gun from the hip, at the same time shouting encouragement to his comrades. There is no doubt that it was largely due to his action on this occasion that the enemy was dispersed. A short while later, when the second enemy group attacked the patrol, Private White produced accurate fire from an exposed position and so inspired and encouraged the rest of the patrol that they held their ground in spite of suffering severe casualties. Because of these casualties the patrol was ordered to withdraw shortly afterwards. During the withdrawal it again made contact with enemy soldiers who were attempting to encircle it. Despite being wounded, Private White quickly placed himself where the threat was greatest and engaged the enemy so skilfully and with such a volume of fire that he was largely responsible for preventing the enemy from pressing home his encircling movement. The initiative, aggressiveness and complete disregard for his own safety that Private White displayed throughout the action proved an outstanding example to the rest of the patrol and contributed significantly to the heavy casualties inflicted on the enemy and the successful extrication of the patrol.

Korea c. 1952. Members of a raiding party don armoured vests for protection. 
(AWM HOBJ3486)

The Military Medal

BLACK, John Kenneth, Corporal (1/400006), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On the morning of 5 October 1951, D Company, 3 RAR, attacked the ridge leading to Hill 317. During the assault on the company's second objective, one of its platoons was launched on a right flanking attack with 5 Section, commanded by Corporal Black, as the right leading section. As it approached the objective, 5 Section came under heavy enemy machine-gun, 3.5 Bazooka and small arms fire. Corporal Black immediately urged his section forward and the first trench line was taken. His section continued to advance and Corporal Black was thrown to the ground by the explosion of an enemy anti-tank grenade. Despite this, he continued the advance and was then wounded in the right arm, rendering him defenseless. The section then came under fire from enemy positions to the rear. Corporal Black, in spite of his wounds, continued to lead his section a further 100 yards until the platoon objective was reached. During the final advance Corporal Black moved forward without personal protection, coolly indicating targets and controlling fire. The section accounted for eleven enemy dead and took four prisoners. Only when the feature was consolidated did Corporal Black permit himself to be evacuated for badly needed medical attention. His example and leadership were an inspiration to his men.



BOSWORTH, Edward Fokes, Corporal (1/400095), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 7 October 1951, during an attack by 5 Platoon, B Company, against thirty to forty enemy on a feature at 174224, Corporal Bosworth, firing his Bren gun from the hip, charged an enemy group of eight men who were concealed in long grass and timber. He killed five and wounded three, creating havoc and demoralising the enemy, causing them to withdraw. Corporal Bosworth then moved to a more favourable position and continued to fire at the retreating enemy. The enemy regrouped under cover and quickly counter-attacked. In spite of enemy grenades thrown at close quarters and small arms fire at point blank range, Corporal Bosworth again charged the enemy, but fell seriously wounded after being largely responsible for the breaking up of the enemy counter-attack. His actions were highly instrumental in capturing and holding ground which was vital to the offensive. His ferociousness in attacking superior numbers of enemy at close quarters and his complete disregard for his personal safety were an inspiration to all around him in the hand-to-hand struggle.



BROWN, Vincent John, Sergeant (2/6086), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Sergeant Brown (then lance corporal) was a section leader of the right forward section in 10 Platoon, D Company, 3 RAR, during the attack on Point 317. After reaching the initial objective-a line of crawl trenches-Sergeant Brown observed his platoon commander being evacuated wounded and immediately took charge of the platoon. While gallantly leading his platoon to the next objective and clearing an enemy-held trench, Sergeant Brown received a wound in the right hand and arm which blew his Owen gun to pieces. Returning to the casualty collection point, he obtained another Owen gun and returned to lead the platoon onto the final objective, where he stayed and reorganised his men before going back for medical treatment. On 7 November 1951, Sergeant Brown's platoon was forced to withdraw to a new area 700 yards south-east due to enemy attacks on Point 317. Under intense enemy small arms fire which included two medium machine-guns, Sergeant Brown, with complete disregard for his personal safety, promptly organised the platoon for the move. In order to issue the necessary orders Sergeant Brown was forced to expose himself to enemy fire in moving from section position to section position. Although suffering from a second wound received on 5 November 1951, Sergeant Brown personally ensured that the minimum amount of ammunition and food would fall into enemy hands by throwing all that could not be carried to the ground to be eventually destroyed by shellfire, returning three times to the platoon area to ensure that these orders had been carried out. Sergeant Brown's gallantry, excellent control and organisation were an inspiration at all times and an example to all.



BRUCE, William James Joseph, Sergeant (5/1534), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

On the night of 6/7 June, Sergeant Bruce was in charge of a reconnaissance patrol which was part of a larger fighting ambush patrol led by an officer. The ambush patrol had been given the initial task of occupying 'The Mound', a feature forward of Point 159. At 10.30 p.m., the patrol was moving into its position when it was ambushed at close quarters by an enemy force, later estimated to be thirty strong. During this clash all members of the leading group of the patrol were wounded, including the patrol leader, while the main body suffered further casualties. On the loss of his officer, Sergeant Bruce immediately took command and quickly reorganised the patrol. Through his quick and skilful leadership he extricated the patrol from the ambush and moved it, taking the casualties with him, to a position some fifty yards away where he formed a defensive perimeter. Shortly after this initial contact the enemy moved along the spur and again attacked the patrol. However, due to the volume and accuracy of the fire controlled by Sergeant Bruce, the enemy was unable to penetrate the patrol and was forced to withdraw after a fierce firefight. During this action at least six enemy soldiers were killed and two wounded. Having withdrawn, the enemy continued to fire on the party on The Mound, but the patrol under Sergeant Bruce remained firmly in command of the situation until a stand-by patrol from the main defences reached the area. Sergeant Bruce then arranged the evacuation of the six wounded and remained with the patrol, organising an exhaustive search for the body of a missing member, not returning to his own lines until after first light. The courage, determination and initiative displayed by Sergeant Bruce throughout the action were outstanding. His calm control of the situation after his officer had been wounded provided a splendid example to the rest of the patrol, and it was entirely due to his cool leadership that the six wounded members of the patrol were successfully evacuated.



CAMERON, Donald George, Private (Temporary Corporal) (5/1461), 
3rdBattalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 5 November 1951 a composite platoon of 10 and 12 platoons, D Company, 3 RAR, launched a counter-attack on a feature east of Point 317 which the enemy had captured the previous night. Corporal Cameron was acting section leader of 3 Section, 10 Platoon, the right forward attacking section. While attempting to cross a gap in the double apron fence, the section came under concentrated machine- gun fire which pinned the men to the ground, halting the advance. With complete disregard for his own personal safety, Corporal Cameron went forward and, using his own grenades and directing the section's small arms fire, neutralised the enemy's machine-gun fire thus allowing the accompanying two sections to advance. When ordered by his platoon commander to clear an enemy bunker from which grenades and small arms fire were coming, Corporal Cameron personally moved forward to do so. He threw a grenade into the bunker, but it was thrown out again by the enemy. With complete disregard for his own safety, he calmly stood his ground, although by this time he was wounded in the left arm and back and bleeding profusely. He released the striker pin on the second grenade, held it for a count of two seconds and then threw it into the bunker. The resulting explosion killed three Chinese and caused a fourth to crawl out wounded and surrender. This action allowed forward movement of the platoon to continue and thus ensure the occupation of the objective. Corporal Cameron stayed on the objective until fresh troops arrived to relieve his men and then walked to the Jeep ambulance, several times refusing to be carried out by stretcher.



CASHMAN, Ronald Kenneth, Private (Temporary Corporal) (3/2913), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

On the night of 24/25 June, Corporal Cashman was second-in-command of a fighting patrol of one officer and fifteen men. As the patrol neared the crest of the feature known as 'The Mound', it was heavily engaged at short range by small arms fire and grenades and the patrol commander was wounded. Corporal Cashman immediately took command and led a fierce assault against the enemy. After the assault Corporal Cashman quickly and calmly reorganised the patrol, which was still under heavy fire, and, realising that the majority of the members by this time had been wounded, ordered the patrol to withdraw, remaining himself with one other man to search for those who had been badly wounded. Throughout this subsequent search, Corporal Cashman and his companion were fewer than thirty yards from enemy soldiers who still occupied the feature. When a seriously wounded member of the patrol was found, Corporal Cashman prepared to carry him back to friendly lines. He quickly discovered that the shortest route was impracticable due to the heavy and slippery going, so he carried the wounded man around the base of the feature and across the enemy's rear, eventually bringing him to safety. Throughout the action Corporal Cashman's conduct was of the highest order. The coolness with which he commanded the patrol under the most adverse of circumstances, his determination to rescue the wounded members even in the face of the enemy, and his complete disregard for his own safety, were examples of leadership and personal courage in the highest traditions of the Regiment.



COOPER, Brian Charles, Corporal (Temporary Sergeant) (5/2053), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

On the night of 24/25 July 1953, Sergeant Cooper was commanding the 2 RAR medium machine-gun section of ten men on Hill 111, a feature on the extreme right flank of the US 1st Marine Division. The task of this section was to cover the western approaches to The Hook feature, some thousand yards away. At about 9.30 p.m., a heavy enemy artillery concentration pounded Hill 111, causing three casualties in the section, and quickly followed by a fierce assault by an estimated enemy company which penetrated the main defences on the immediate left of the section. Sergeant Cooper, leaving his medium machine-guns manned and laid on their primary task, quickly organised the remainder of his men into a defensive position facing his left flank and engaged the enemy so skillfully and with such a volume of grenade and small arms fire that they were unable, in spite of their numbers, to penetrate his position. During the next seven hours Sergeant Cooper and his few remaining men stubbornly fought off repeated attempts by the enemy to overrun his position. In addition, and on his own initiative, he also called down friendly artillery fire, directing it so close to his own positions and those of the US Marines that it completely prevented the enemy from pressing home further organised attacks. The efficiency of his fire control was made evident the next morning by the number of enemy dead who lay in front of the area. In addition, throughout the action, Sergeant Cooper continued to pass to his battalion a constant flow of the most valuable information concerning the situation in both his area and that of the Marines, as well as personally supervising the evacuation of his casualties to a safe area under heavy shell fire and through an area in which parties of the enemy were still moving.



CROCKFORD, Kenneth Humber, Lance Corporal (1/400604), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

On the night of 25/26 July 1953, Lance Corporal Crockford was commanding the section of six men holding the Contact Bunker between Hill 111, the right flank of the US 1st Marine Division, and Hill 121, on which was situated the left flank position of his own battalion. At about 8.30 p.m., a very heavy enemy artillery barrage began to fall on the whole area of Hills 111 and 121. Immediately following the barrage a fierce assault was made by an estimated enemy company which first penetrated the main defences on the left of the Contact Bunker position and then infiltrated into and to the rear of the bunker area itself. In the bitter hand-to-hand fight that followed in the trenches around his position, Lance Corporal Crockford so skillfully and coolly directed the fire of his section, moving among them with complete disregard for his own safety, that he prevented the enemy from isolating the two hills, in spite of the fact that his own position was, by this time, surrounded and fighting on its own. When the first assault had subsided, realising that there were still many enemy in the area and that he would not be able to fight off many further attacks, he called for friendly artillery fire, himself giving the necessary corrections until the fire was falling onto and around his own position. Evidence of his accurate control of this fire was amply provided the next morning when thirty-five enemy dead were found in the area. In addition, throughout the night Lance Corporal Crockford continued to pass back information to his battalion over his wireless. Much of this he could only have gained by moving some hundreds of yards through the continuous heavy shell fire to the Marine command post on Hill 111, where the communications had failed.

Korea c. 1951. Troops struggle through the snow as the Korean winter fades to a freezing, slushy end.
(AWM HOBJ2070)


DAVIE, Donald Breyard, Lance Corporal (Temporary Corporal) (4/158),
3rdBattalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

During operations on 23/24 April 1951, Corporal Davie commanded 1 Section of 4 Platoon. On the afternoon of 24 April 1951, 4 Platoon was ordered to attack a position on which the enemy was dug in. Corporal Davie's section was the right forward section during this attack. While forming up Corporal Davie observed a party of enemy soldiers run from their position in an endeavour to outflank 4 Platoon. He immediately moved his section to a new position from which they destroyed the entire enemy party. The attack then proceeded with Corporal Davie's section tasked to clear the enemy defences on the right. As he advanced, his section came under fire from a knoll beyond his objective, and under intense light machine-gun, submachine-gun, rifle and grenade fire from his objective. Corporal Davie detailed a man to engage the knoll and led the remainder of his section with fixed bayonets in an assault on his objective. His attack gained and cleared the first line of defences with only three casualties to his section. The section then came under heavy machine- gun fire from trenches further to the rear, but Corporal Davie pressed the attack with his remaining men and completely cleared his objective, accounting for thirty-one enemy dead and destroying considerable amounts of enemy equipment. Throughout the operation Corporal Davie displayed outstanding leadership and courage, showing complete disregard for his personal safety, and was an inspiration to his own section and the remainder of his platoon.



DAVIES, Cecil Ernest, Private (Temporary Sergeant) (2/401090), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

During Sergeant Davies' service with the battalion he took part in many patrols, on numerous occasions as patrol commander, and displayed outstanding qualities of courage and determination at all times. On the night of 22/23 January 1953, hearing that a patrol had entered a minefield and had sustained two casualties, Sergeant Davies, who knew the general boundary of the minefield which was sited some 400 yards forward of his section position, immediately went to the scene of the incident. On arriving at the outer limit of the minefield, he commenced to clear a path towards the casualties but found that, owing to the frozen state of the ground, it was impossible to locate the mines by prodding with the bayonet. Sergeant Davies then proceeded to clear a safe passage through the minefield by stamping his feet on the ground knowing full well that one soldier had already been killed and another seriously wounded by a mine which had exploded after being walked on in the same minefield. By this means he cleared a path approximately 30 yards in length. On reaching the position at which the wounded man lay, Sergeant Davies hoisted him onto his back and then crawled back along the path he had previously beaten out, using his own body as a shield for the wounded soldier in the event of another explosion. The supreme courage and devotion to duty which Sergeant Davies displayed on this occasion was typical of his behaviour throughout the whole period and gained him the highest respect of his company.



DIGGS, Thomas, Lance Corporal (Temporary Sergeant) (2/401127), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Sergeant Diggs joined the battalion in November 1952, serving as a rifleman, section commander and platoon sergeant. During his service in Korea he took part in over thirty patrols and, on all occasions, displayed courage, initiative and devotion to duty of a very high order. On one occasion, Sergeant (then Corporal) Diggs was in command of a patrol which, on approaching the location of a proposed ambush, was fired on by an enemy patrol which was already in position. The ensuing firefight was coolly and capably controlled by Sergeant Diggs who, after inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy with small arms fire, showing great coolness, withdrew with his own dead and wounded to a position of observation from which he directed artillery fire onto the enemy ambush. In July 1953, his platoon position on Point 159 was so severely damaged by torrential rain and enemy shell fire that the defensive works provided little or no security against an enemy attack. On this occasion Seargeant (then Corporal) Diggs set an unparalleled example of devotion to duty by working almost continuously for a period of 42 hours repairing the damage. The courage, determination and powers of physical endurance displayed by Sergeant Diggs have at all times been beyond praise and have served as an outstanding inspiration and example to all ranks of his battalion.



DUNQUE, Ronald Edward, Private (3/2196), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Private Dunque was a stretcher-bearer attached to D Company, 3 RAR. During heavy enemy attacks on 8 Section, 12 Platoon, Private Dunque was treating casualties inflicted on the section. There were six casualties in the section and Private Dunque made six separate trips treating and evacuating casualties under heavy enemy fire. As he evacuated the last casualty Private Dunque was wounded in the temple by an enemy grenade. Despite his injury, he continued with the evacuation. Later in the day, while attending casualties in 10 Platoon after a mistaken Napalm bombing on the company position, he was wounded in the leg by an exploding grenade set off by the flames racing through his position. Private Dunque refused to be evacuated and stayed on duty allowing the more serious cases to be carried to safety. He marched out on a six-hour trek during the company was withdrawal, providing great inspiration to all ranks and stretcher-bearers who were carrying the wounded through most difficult terrain



EVERLEIGH, Cecil James, Corporal (Temporary Sergeant) (2/400234), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 5 October 1951, during the attack on Hill 317, Temporary Sergeant Everleigh was platoon sergeant of 3 Platoon, A Company. The platoon was tasked with securing feature 184211 which was heavily bunkered and held by an unknown number of enemy soldiers. The approach was also under fire from high ground to the north-west and the area had been under mortar and shell fire. Sergeant Everleigh's conduct was inspiring both prior to the platoon assault and during the attack involving the left leading section. On reaching the line of bunkers, the Chinese hurriedly pulled back. Sergeant Everleigh carried the attack through the objective with great vigour. While the section was flushing the bunkers, Sergeant Everleigh went on alone and dispersed the enemy on the reverse slope showing complete disregard for his own safety. This action prevented any immediate counter-attack by the enemy at a critical stage. Throughout the operation, Sergeant Everleigh displayed outstanding leadership and personal courage and instilled confidence and aggressiveness in the men of his platoon.



HARRIS, Alfred Martin, Sergeant (3/833), 
Australian Intelligence Corps (attached 3 RAR Headquarters, 1 Commonwealth Division), 1953

Sergeant Harris made eleven trips into enemy territory as non-commissioned officer in charge of the Divisional Agent Detachment, either to show new agents routes or on special reconnaissance. In late June 1953, after several new agent groups had been forced back by both the enemy's alertness and by the dangerous flood conditions of the River Samichon, Sergeant Harris decided that the only way to get his men across no man's land and gather badly needed information, was to take them himself. At 9.30 p.m. on 2 July 1953, he led a group of new agents into no man's land and onto the flooded, fast running River Samichon. Sergeant Harris first swam the river taking a guide rope line with him and then helped his men across. Next he split his men into two groups of two and made for the anti-tank ditch some 1,500 yards inside the enemy's forward defence lines where previous agents had encountered opposition. On reaching this obstacle, Sergeant Harris and his partner came under fire from small arms and grenades. The agent was instantly killed and Sergeant Harris was wounded in the hand and thigh. Sergeant Harris however, appreciating that his other group had not been detected, drew the attention of the enemy to himself by returning the fire with pistol and grenades until his ammunition was gone. After a few minutes the enemy fire became too heavy and Sergeant Harris dived into the river and let the current take him out of range. By thus drawing attention to himself, Sergeant Harris ensured that the other agents could get through and they eventually returned with much useful information. Sergeant Harris displayed outstanding courage and determination at all times. It was due mainly to this non-commissioned officer's gallant conduct and efficiency that the Divisional Agent Detachment was able to operate with such success.



HOLDEN, Leo Clarence, Lance Corporal (2/1838), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Until evacuated wounded in action in September 1952, Lance Corporal Holden displayed outstanding qualities of leadership and initiative as a rifleman and secondin-command of a rifle section. He took part in the B Company attack on Point 75 on 13/14 August 1952, as a result of which he was promoted to the rank of lance corporal due to the qualities of initiative and complete disregard for personal safety that he displayed throughout the action. On the night of 28/29 September 1952, this noncommissioned officer was second-in-command of a patrol which set an ambush in front of friendly positions. At 7.45 p.m., a strong party of enemy, later established as a company, moved into the ambush on a wide front. A fierce fight ensued and early in the action Lance Corporal Holden was wounded in both legs. Despite this, he retained control of his section and continued to take part in the firefight. By the time the withdrawal was eventually ordered the patrol had suffered a further three casualties. These casualties were evacuated under escort ahead of the remainder of the patrol, which was acting as a covering force. Lance Corporal Holden, although only able to crawl, refused to be evacuated with this group, remaining with the covering party engaging the enemy until ordered by the patrol commander to allow himself to be assisted when the withdrawal was almost completed. The courage and determination shown throughout this action by this young non-commissioned officer was, to a great degree, responsible for the orderly and secure withdrawal of the patrol under fire, and exemplifies the outstanding devotion to duty and sense of responsibility towards the men under his command that he has consistently displayed.



JUBB, Thomas John, Private (Temporary Corporal) (3/400353),
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

On the night of 12 July 1952, Private Jubb was the stretcher-bearer attached to a platoon detailed to raid an enemy-held feature known as Point 115. Immediate contact was made and several men fell wounded on the parapet of the enemy position. Private Jubb, who was moving with the rear section, immediately dashed forward under heavy small arms fire and dragged a badly wounded man to cover. He then returned twice more to the enemy position and each time carried a wounded man to a covered position part of the way down the feature. With assistance from other members of the platoon, Private Jubb then evacuated the three casualties to the platoon firm base located 300 yards from Point 115. On arrival at the firm base he attended to all of the platoon's nine casualties. Throughout the move back and at the firm base he went about his duties under heavy mortar fire with complete disregard for his own safety. He continued to care for the wounded until all casualties were evacuated, eventually withdrawing with the rearguard of the platoon. The speed and efficiency with which Private Jubb provided medical aid to the wounded and his complete lack of consideration for his own personal safety did much to inspire the other members of the platoon and were of great assistance in the recovery of most of the platoon's casualties. Subsequent to this action Private Jubb continued as stretcher- bearer to his company. He took part in a number of fighting patrols and assisted on other occasions in evacuating patrol and shelling casualties from his company area. On all these occasions he continued to display courage and devotion to duty to such a degree that his mere presence inspired confidence among the wounded and other stretcher-bearers alike.



KENT, George Edward, Private (1/400713), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Private Kent displayed exceptional courage and devotion to duty while participating in all types of patrols. On the night of 22/23 July, Private Kent was a Bren gunner in the reconnaissance element of a standing patrol on Green Finger. While moving to its position on the highest point of Green Finger ridge, the patrol was engaged by an unknown number of enemy soldiers firing grenades and small arms, killing one member of the patrol and seriously wounding the patrol commander. With complete disregard for his own personal safety, and displaying a devotion to duty and enthusiasm beyond that normally required, Private Kent charged the enemy group firing his Bren and inflicting certain casualties of at least two killed and two wounded. Private Kent continued to engage the enemy until a lack of ammunition forced him to withdraw. While reloading his weapon he received multiple wounds from grenade and small arms fire. Private Kent's action disorganised and demoralised the enemy soldiers, forcing them to withdraw so that they could be subsequently dealt with by artillery directed by the patrol. Such action was typical of Private Kent's conduct as a soldier. The calm courage, initiative, determination and devotion to duty and the placing of his safety second to that of other members were an inspiration to all.



McAULIFFE, James Michael, Private (3/2491), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Private McAuliffe was a section Bren gunner while the unit was holding The Hook sector. He had served one tour of twelve months in Korea with 3 RAR, and had volunteered for a second tour with 2 RAR. His ability as a soldier and a Bren gunner had earned Private McAuliffe the admiration of his comrades and the respect of his officers. On the night of 23/24 July, Private McAuliffe was a member of a standing patrol which moved onto Green Finger, the feature which covered one of the main approaches to The Hook position. On each night the patrol was engaged by an unknown number of enemy and the patrols suffered casualties. On the night of 23/24 July, the enemy withdrew after a brief firefight and brought down heavy mortar and artillery fire which wounded five members of the patrol, forcing the patrol to pull back. While the patrol leader organised the evacuation of the casualties, Private McAuliffe commanded the remainder of the patrol. This he did coolly and efficiently, passing back information and directing supporting fire over the patrol wireless, which he had not previously handled on patrol. Later in the night when the enemy shelling had eased, the patrol leader ordered the patrol to move to its original position. During this move Private McAuliffe manned the wireless and continued to pass information calmly and efficiently until he was seriously wounded and had to be evacuated. His actions on this occasion were typical of his devotion to duty and his calm efficiency in the face of the enemy and provided an outstanding example to the remainder of his company.



McCARTHY, David, Lance Corporal (2/400645 ), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

During the night of 13/14 September 1952, Lance Corporal McCarthy commanded a section of a fighting patrol from C Company, 1 RAR. At 11.50 p.m. on 13 September 1952, the leading element of the patrol encountered two parties of enemy, totalling twenty in all, positioned along a small ridge near the bank of a creek. Receiving orders to close with the enemy, Lance Corporal McCarthy at once led his section in a charge, his men firing from the hip and throwing grenades. So sudden and determined was Lance Corporal McCarthy's charge that the enemy fled in confusion, leaving two dead and two badly wounded in their ambush position. He then pursued the enemy soldiers back towards their main positions, hurling his remaining grenades and finally firing a magazine from his Owen gun into their midst. On his way back to his section, Lance Corporal McCarthy came face-to-face with an armed Chinese soldier. Seizing him by the throat, Lance Corporal McCarthy disarmed him, removing a rifle and three grenades and, with his prisoner, rejoined his patrol commander. Lance Corporal McCarthy's quick thinking, inspired leadership and great courage were an example to all, and contributed largely to the successful accomplishment of the mission with which his patrol was entrusted.



McCRINDLE, Ronald John, Lance Corporal (2/400620), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Lance Corporal McCrindle was a member of twenty-five patrols against the enemy, several times acting as patrol commander. On most occasions he acted as forward scout and was a constant source of inspiration to his men, always remaining cool and decisive and showing complete disregard for his own personal safety. When his section defensive position was under heavy shellfire he moved from bunker to bunker, encouraging his men and inspiring confidence. On the night of 12/13 September 1952, Corporal McCrindle's section met an enemy ambush of superior strength. On contact, Corporal McCrindle instantly deployed his section and organised a grenade barrage and section assault, which he fearlessly led straight at the enemy, lying in ambush. So devastating were his section's grenades and so determined the assault that the enemy broke and fled, screaming with fear. This courageous action killed three of the enemy and resulted in one being captured without loss to the patrol. This patrol victory was so successful that the morale and the aggressive spirit of the company were significantly raised. On the night of 21/22 September 1952, Corporal McCrindle was a member of a fighting patrol. During an engagement with the enemy the patrol commander was killed. Corporal McCrindle quickly took command of the patrol and, in spite of the disorganisation and the presence of an enemy party in the area, successfully evacuated the patrol commander's body to friendly lines. Corporal McCrindle's coolness under fire, aggression action against the enemy and his complete disregard for his own safety served as an inspiration to all those around him.

Korea, 1 January 1953. A digger keeps an eye on the front line from a snow-covered position. (AWM HOBJ3883)


MACKAY, Francis Leo, Private (Temporary Corporal) (3/3841), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

On the night of 24/25 January 1953, Temporary Corporal Mackay was second-incommand of a fighting patrol of eighteen men. That night a neighbouring patrol was completely encircled by an estimated reinforced company of enemy, and Corporal Mackay's patrol went to its aid. During the ensuing forty-minute firefight, Corporal Mackay provided valuable assistance to his patrol commander. As required, he took command of one group while the patrol commander led the other group. He moved constantly amongst his men during the action, maintaining control, and leading his group in small attacks to relieve pressure on the other group, despite the fact that he himself was wounded in the latter stages of the action. He also controlled the evacuation of the wounded men of the patrol and, at times, fought directly over the bodies of the wounded men lying on the ground. On one occasion when his patrol commander was experiencing difficulties, Corporal Mackay went to his assistance, personally killing four of the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting. Throughout the whole of the action Corporal Mackay, through his aggressive spirit and quick decisions, set a magnificent example to his men and did much to extricate the patrol from enemy territory under very difficult conditions.



McMURRAY, Charlie Francis, Private (2/989), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1950

On the morning of 22 October 1950, Private McMurray was a member of a C Company platoon located near Yongju which assaulted an enemy position on the right flank of the main axis of advance to the junction with the US 11th Airborne Division. Private McMurray was subject to heavy fire for two hours and displayed utter disregard for his personal safety. During the assault by his platoon he moved forward, bayoneting and shooting a number of the enemy. Throughout the engagement his courage and determination were an inspiration to the younger and more inexperienced men of his platoon.



McNULTY, Edward John, Corporal (Temporary Sergeant) (2/4880), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

On the night of 10/11 December 1952, Sergeant McNulty commanded the reserve section and the assault pioneer group of the force which assaulted enemy positions on 'Flora' (CT 161208). As the force approached the objective it came under heavy enemy small arms and grenade fire. It quickly became apparent that the enemy holding the position was in far greater strength than anticipated. Sergeant McNulty's force was immediately committed in a mopping-up role. With his small party he searched for and located many enemy shelters and bunkers, inflicting casualties and serious material damage on the enemy. It was due to his energetic and courageous action during this period that many enemy posts, which had been bypassed in the initial assault, were destroyed, thus keeping friendly casualties to a minimum. As his force cleared the objective, an enemy machine-gun opened up, wounding one man. Sergeant McNulty helped to move the wounded man to safety but, in doing so, was struck by a bullet, which was fortunately deflected by his armored jacket. With complete disregard for his own safety and despite being shaken by his near miss, he personally assaulted the position with grenades and killed the crew. He then began the collection of wounded in the area, moving freely through the enemy defensive fire that was now beginning to fall. When the order for the withdrawal was given, Sergeant McNulty checked his troops through and waited until all had cleared the position before he himself withdrew from the area. Through his personal courage and disregard for his own safety he significantly contributed to maintaining the momentum of the assault. He set a splendid example to his men and infused them with a determination which contributed largely to the success of the operation.



MAGUIRE, Thomas William, Corporal (1/2303),
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Corporal Maguire was a section commander at the time his unit was occupying The Hook sector in July 1953. Throughout this period he displayed exceptional qualities of leadership, courage and devotion to duty, commanding a number of patrols. On one occasion the patrol task was to move out along Green Finger ridge to the highest point. As it neared the top, the patrol was engaged by an unknown number of enemy soldiers with grenades and small arms fire. One member of the patrol was killed and Corporal Maguire himself was wounded; however, the patrol immediately engaged the enemy with automatic fire till the enemy soldiers withdrew. Corporal Maguire then directed artillery fire onto the enemy's likely withdrawal routes. Corporal Maguire then reorganised his patrol and the evacuation of the deceased member. He refused to leave his patrol until some time later when he was overcome by his wounds, by which time another non-commissioned officer had taken command of the patrol. This was typical of the way in which Corporal Maguire had handled numerous patrols, displaying the highest qualities of leadership and a complete disregard for his own safety.



MENE, Charlie, Private (1/9942), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Corporal Mene enlisted in the Army in 1940, joining this unit in 1945 and earning a reputation as an outstandingly loyal and efficient soldier. He proved himself an excellent leader and a very cool and courageous non-commissioned officer. During a daylight raid on HILL 227 (CT 160189) on 2 July 1952, Corporal Mene's section was tasked with holding the left of the crest line. This area was under continuous heavy enemy machine-gun and mortar fire. For ninety minutes Corporal Mene moved coolly amongst his men, giving them encouragement, and only withdrawing his section when ordered to do so. His conduct was an inspiration to young soldiers under fire for the first time. On the night of 11/12 August 1952, Corporal Mene took command of an ambush patrol while the patrol commander and a small party moved forward on a reconnaissance. During his commander's absence a party of the enemy approached. Corporal Mene held his fire until the enemy was about two feet from his ambush when he ordered his men to open fire. Six enemy soldiers were killed, allowing the reconnaissance party to rejoin the patrol. Further parties of enemy approached and the patrol came under fire from three sides. During the subsequent withdrawal, which was closely followed by the enemy, Corporal Mene's coolness and example assisted considerably in the safe conduct of the operation and the successful evacuation of two wounded to friendly lines. Corporal Mene's courage and devotion to duty were an inspiration to all around him.



O'CONNELL, Patrick John, Private (Temporary Sergeant) (1/400133), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On 6 October 1951, Temporary Sergeant O'Connell of 4 Platoon, B Company, displayed extreme heroism during a firefight preceding an assault. Sergeant O'Connell saw a member of his platoon fall badly wounded in open ground and, leaving the protection of his pit and in full view of the enemy, showing a complete disregard for his own personal safety, dashed forward through heavy machine-gun and small arms fire, over a distance of twenty yards. He brought the wounded man back over the exposed ground to cover. On 7 October 1951, during a counter-attack by an enemy group of battalion strength on his company position, his section Bren gunner was wounded. Sergeant O'Connell dashed over to the Bren gun pit and operated the gun at a critical stage. His accurate fire, backed by cool judgement and control of his section, inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy during their repeated attacks. Sergeant O'Connell's aggressiveness, leadership, personal courage and devotion to duty on 6 and 7 October were an inspiration to all around him. He was highly instrumental in repulsing the enemy counter-attack on 7 October and contributed significantly to the success of the action at a very critical stage of the offensive.



PARK, John, Private (Temporary Corporal) (1/400149), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Lance Corporal Park, Commander of 4 Section, 5 Platoon, B Company, led his section in an attack against thirty to forty enemy soldiers on feature 174224. As the diggers advanced, they came under heavy machine-gun fire and half the section fell as casualties. Taking the initiative, Lance Corporal Park personally charged forward with his machine carbine firing, with accurate and devastating results. He killed seven of the enemy soldiers and wounded several more, forcing the enemy to withdraw. The enemy then counter-attacked with twenty to twenty-five men and again Lance Corporal Park led his depleted section in an attack, dispersing the enemy. At one stage of the enemy counter-attack, Lance Corporal Park's machine carbine jammed. Dodging to avoid a grenade thrown by a Chinese soldier, Park closed with him and killed him with his bare hands. He then moved in to assist in the complete smashing of the enemy counter-attack. Throughout the action, Lance Corporal Park displayed boldness, initiative, leadership and complete disregard for his own personal safety.

Korea c. 1951. Australian troops on a snow-covered hillside. 
(AWM HOBJ2068)


PARRY, Ray Norman, Private (Temporary Corporal) (5/400), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

On the night of 23 April 1951, Lance Corporal Parry, armed with a light machine- gun, took three riflemen to man a small knoll slightly to the rear of B Company's perimeter. Based on information that the enemy had infiltrated friendly lines and large numbers were forming up below the knoll to attack the company position, Lance Corporal Parry, leaving the remainder of his section under command of his second-in-command, moved towards the knoll. As he arrived at the light machine-gun outpost (at approximately 4.00 a.m.), the enemy soldiers-fifty in number-launched their attack. Through Lance Corporal Parry's brilliant use of the firepower under his command and his inspiring leadership, the attack was smashed; the enemy was forced to withdraw leaving behind many dead and wounded. Three further enemy attacks were made on the outpost in the next twenty minutes, but these were repulsed in the same determined manner as the first. The knoll was to the rear of B Company's position and, had this fallen to the enemy soldiers, they could have dominated the company perimeter. There is no doubt that Lance Corporal Parry's quick appreciation of the situation and brilliant leadership, together with his determination to hold vital ground, was directly responsible for the company's perimeter remaining intact and the thorough disorganisation of the enemy. Ten enemy dead were counted after the first attack and, as day broke, a further thirteen dead were found on the lower slopes.



POWER, David Richard, Private (2/4576), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Private Power was a rifleman in a platoon launching a counter-attack on a steep feature east of Point 317 in November 1951. Halfway up the hill his section Bren gunner was badly wounded by enemy small arms fire and, without waiting for orders, Private Power immediately went to his aid, recovering the gun, although the area in close proximity to the Bren gunner was still under small arms fire. With the Bren gun now in his possession, he returned to his section to find it held up by fire from a group of three enemy soldiers. Without regard for his own personal safety, he engaged this group, advancing with the Bren and firing from the hip, killing the three and allowing the advance to continue. While consolidating on the objective, Private Power's section came under heavy enemy small arms fire from a position approximately 450 yards away. Exposing himself to fire repeatedly, Private Power engaged the enemy from various positions until finally he was able to silence their fire. Private Power's quick appreciation, gallant actions and repeated disregard for his own personal safety were an inspiration to his platoon and were undoubtedly instrumental in their capturing and holding their objective.



PURVIS, Alfred Donald, Corporal (Temporary Staff Sergeant) (2/2088),
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Corporal Purvis commanded a section of 2 Platoon at the time of the October offensive. During A Company's attack along the ridge leading to Point 317, 2 Platoon was engaged in two platoon attacks on enemy positions which were deeply dug in and strongly defended. On each occasion Corporal Purvis led his section with dash and determination. During these attacks and later during subsequent heavy enemy counter-attacks, his courage and coolness under fire were of the highest order. On the night of 25/26 January 1952, a platoon of D Company attacked Point 227. During the attack, 2 Platoon was detailed to provide a stretcher party to evacuate casualties from the Dog outpost, approximately 150 yards from the peak of Point 227, back to the A Company aid post. At this stage the area was being heavily shelled and mortared by the enemy. Corporal Purvis was in charge of the stretcher party which evacuated a total of thirteen casualties. The speedy and efficient evacuation of these men was largely due to Corporal Purvis' organisational ability and leadership. His example under fire was an inspiration to all. On another occasion, Corporal Purvis was left in charge during the platoon commander's absence. On the night of 23/24 February 1952, a reconnaissance patrol from 3 Platoon was on the spur leading south from Point 227 when Corporal Purvis intercepted a wireless message stating that they had struck enemy mines and one man had been seriously injured. Corporal Purvis immediately organised a stretcher party, proceeded to the mined area and there arranged the wounded man's quick evacuation, a fact that was instrumental in saving the man's life. Corporal Purvis' loyalty and ability were of the highest order and he performed his duties with zeal at all times, displaying outstanding courage in action.

Korea c. 1951. Australian soldiers welcome relieving troops of the 20th Battalion, Philippines Regimental Combat Team. 
(AWM HOBJ2606)


RALSTON, Gavin Carmichael, Lance Corporal (2/400615), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Lance Corporal Ralston was a member of twenty-five patrols against the enemy, acting many times as forward scout. His calmness and unusual stalking ability meant that he was often instrumental in gaining valuable information by leading reconnaissance patrols in close proximity to enemy-occupied positions. One such patrol was subjected to heavy mortaring and several casualties were incurred. Lance Corporal Ralston guided the walking wounded to safety and then returned, still under fire, and with complete disregard for his own safety, to escort the stretcher parties. On 15 September 1952, his platoon conducted a daylight fighting patrol. At one stage platoon headquarters was heavily mortared by the enemy and the platoon signaller was severely wounded. Together with his platoon commander, he moved through heavy fire into the open and rendered first aid to the casualty; then, still under fire and in full view of the enemy, he remained with the wounded man for twenty minutes until he could be evacuated. This non-commissioned officer displayed the highest example to his section, whether on patrol or under bombardment in the forward defence lines. His consistent cheerfulness and excellent personal conduct at all times were a constant inspiration to his men and contributed to the excellent morale of his section.



RICHARDSON, Robert, Lance Corporal (2/10667), 
2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

Private Richardson was rifle section commander and second-in-command of a section throughout May and June 1953 while his company was in the line, participating in many patrols of all types with exceptional courage and enthusiasm. On the night of 23/24 May 1953, he particularly distinguished himself when commanding a section in an ambush patrol on Durham Ridge in front of Point 159. Shortly after taking up its position the patrol was engaged by an enemy force over twenty strong. During the fierce close-quarter fight that followed, the patrol leader and four members, out of a total of thirteen, were wounded. Quickly assessing the situation, Private Richardson immediately took command of the patrol and withdrew it, taking the wounded with him. Though the withdrawal was closely followed by the enemy, Private Richardson controlled the fire and movement of the few unwounded members of the patrol so skillfully that the enemy was prevented from overrunning it. It was later confirmed that six enemy soldiers were killed in this engagement. The high degree of leadership, initiative and determination that Private Richardson displayed throughout this action were typical of the qualities he demonstrated on many other occasions in contact with the enemy-qualities which have gained him the admiration and respect of all ranks who have served with him.



SAVILLE, Bruce, Lance Corporal (Temporary Corporal) (2/4588), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Corporal Saville spent almost six months as a rifle section commander in B Company, 3 RAR. He consistently displayed outstanding qualities of initiative and determination during this time, especially on the many occasions he commanded or was a member of patrols against the enemy. He particularly distinguished himself on the night of 13/14 August 1952 when, as part of an attack by B Company against Point 75, he led his section with outstanding dash and vigour under heavy fire against the enemy. Despite the fact that he was wounded during this action, he refused to be evacuated, preferring to remain and supervise the evacuation of the other casualties. Again, on the night of 28/29 September 1952, he commanded a small patrol of three men whose task it was to lure the enemy into an ambush position occupied by a bigger patrol. He successfully made contact with the enemy, which was later estimated to be of company strength and, having made sufficient noise to attract their attention, he led them towards the ambush. However, having passed through the ambush patrol he saw that the enemy would pass too far to the south of the ambush site. Accordingly, he went forward again and, by deliberately exposing himself to enemy fire, he drew them successfully into the ambush, albeit at great personal risk. This non-commissioned officer's initiative and courage on this latter occasion were largely responsible for the success of the action in which very heavy casualties were inflicted on an enemy company, denying it the opportunity to attack friendly forward localities. Corporal Saville's behaviour on these two occasions exemplified the high standard of courage and devotion to duty he maintained as section commander and patrol leader throughout his tour.



SMITH, Ronald Francis Alfred, Private (3/400223), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment

Private Smith was a member of 8 Section, 12 Platoon, on the extreme right flank of the company position. He occupied a position on the right flank of the section during continuous enemy attacks of platoon strength on his section's position. This position bore the brunt of the main enemy assault each time they attacked and on each occasion the section repulsed the enemy, inflicting heavy casualties. During these attacks Private Smith was wounded, yet he endeavoured to remain on duty assisting his section leader until his injury led to his own evacuation. Private Smith showed outstanding courage of a very high order and was an inspiration to the remainder of his hard-pressed section.



STANLEY, Arthur George, Sergeant (Temporary Warrant Officer Class 2)(2/1116), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Throughout his twelve months' service with 3 RAR, Warrant Officer Stanley displayed courage and ability of a very high order. During Operation Commando in October 1951, Warrant Officer Stanley was company sergeant-major of C Company against heavy opposition. During this attack, Warrant Officer Stanley proved to be an outstanding soldier, remaining cool and extremely efficient despite the mortaring, shelling and small arms fire to which the company was subjected. He proved himself of invaluable assistance to his company commander. Throughout the reorganisation on Point 317, Warrant Officer Stanley was exposed to heavy shelling as he moved constantly about the position supervising the resupply of ammunition and evacuation of casualties, which he did without regard for his own safety. During the latter part of this action, Warrant Officer Stanley was evacuated unconscious as a result of shell blast. He returned to his company, however, in the very minimum time, to resume his duties, though obviously still unwell. Again, in January 1952, during a raid against Point 227, Warrant Officer Stanley displayed the same outstanding qualities. His efficiency and courage under fire contributed significantly to the smooth functioning of the operation, particularly in the evacuation of casualties. Warrant Officer Stanley was an excellent example and inspiration to the remainder of the battalion, and consistently displayed outstanding zeal, efficiency and courage.



STRONG, Rex William, Sergeant (3/2053), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Sergeant Strong was a mortar fire controller attached to B Company, 3 RAR, during Operation Commando (1-8 October 1951) and its subsequent operations. During an action on the morning of 5 October 1951, the B Company signaller was wounded and Sergeant Strong took over as company signaller while still acting as mortar fire controller. On the morning of 6 October 1951, B Company exploited forward of Point 317 and, during the battle, the company sergeant-major was mortally wounded. Sergeant Strong, on his own initiative, took over the duties of company sergeant- major. Despite the heavy shelling and presence of enemy snipers, he arranged the evacuation of the many casualties and resupply of ammunition, frequently exposing himself to enemy fire in order to do so. In the temporary absence of his company commander he passed situation reports over the rear link to the battalion commander, at all times providing calm and reliable reports. During a heavy enemy counterattack on the night of 7/8 October, Sergeant Strong frequently left his weapon pit in order to check the requirements of the forward elements. He continued to perform the duties of company sergeant-major until reorganisation, when he took over the duties of company quartermaster sergeant and remained forward with the company. Because of the shortage of personnel, he also continued his duties as mortar fire controller. Throughout the operation, during which more than half the company was killed or wounded, Sergeant Strong's courage, judgement and initiative were an inspiration to all.



TAYLOR, Laurence Edward, Private (Temporary Corporal) (2/2709), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

On the morning of 2 July 1952, Corporal Taylor, A Company, 1 RAR, commanded a forward section during a raid by his company against a well-organised and deeply entrenched enemy strong point on Hill 227. His task was to seize a small enemy outpost some distance beyond the main position and hold it throughout the operation with the object of cutting off the enemy's retreat from his main strong points and of meeting any counter-attack from that direction. As his section advanced beyond the ridgeline, it came under heavy machine-gun and mortar fire and three of its members were wounded. Corporal Taylor, however, led the remainder resolutely on to his objective through continued fire and quickly disposed them in a shallow crawl trench where they came under further concentrated small arms fire from a position fifty yards to their front. Calmly directing the fire of his men, he eventually silenced the enemy machine-guns and continued to hold his position under heavy mortar fire until ordered to withdraw some ninety minutes later. During the withdrawal a further member of his section was wounded. Corporal Taylor supervised his evacuation and completed the withdrawal in an orderly manner. His stand on the outpost position had secured the company from the threat of counter-attack, and the manner in which he dealt with the enemy machine-guns saved the company from many more casualties. Throughout the action, he displayed great courage, coolness and steadfast leadership of the highest order. His conduct and control of his section under heavy fire in its exposed position was an inspiration to all who saw him and set a standard in leadership which stood his battalion in great stead in its future actions.



THOMAS, John Francis, Corporal (2/4688), 
1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Corporal Thomas proved himself a medical orderly of outstanding quality. On his own initiative, he repeatedly went beyond friendly forward localities to tend men who were wounded in action and remained informed of the progress of patrols so that in the event of contact with the enemy he could quickly move to a position from which he could render immediate aid. On more than one occasion he voluntarily exposed himself to heavy enemy shell and mortar fire to assist wounded men and, even when in reserve, he volunteered for service with other units when heavy casualties were anticipated. One example of this occurred when he provided assistance in the forward ROK aid post during a ROK regiment's attack on the Norrie feature. During an attack on Hill 227 on 2 July 1952, Corporal Thomas established a company aid post on an exposed woody spur halfway up the feature, where he was able to administer ready assistance to the badly wounded, and personally control his hard- pressed stretcher-bearers. Again, during an attack on the same hill by another unit, he personally organised the stretcher-bearers of the attacking unit and led them to the top of the hill to  courage, determination and good humour in adversity were an inspiration to all who served with him, and the example he set of selfless devotion to duty must seldom have been surpassed.



THOMAS, Kevin Claude, Corporal (2/400495), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Corporal Thomas served as a rifle section commander in A Company, 3 RAR, for six months. Throughout this period he demonstrated the highest qualities of a junior non-commissioned officer, both in command of his section and as a leader of fighting and reconnaissance patrols. He particularly distinguished himself on the night of 3 September 1952 as second-in-command of a fighting patrol of one officer and fifteen men who successfully ambushed an enemy patrol about forty strong. During this action Corporal Thomas personally killed three of the enemy and his section accounted for a further nine. When the officer commanding the patrol was severely wounded he took command and, judging the patrol's objective to have been achieved, ordered its withdrawal to the patrol firm base position to the rear. Corporal Thomas first organised the evacuation of the wounded and then remained with a small group of men to cover the move back. Shortly afterwards about twenty enemy soldiers made a determined attack on this rearguard. Under Corporal Thomas's leadership, however, they were successfully fought off, with at least two being killed. Under heavy enemy fire the rearguard then rejoined the firm base, Corporal Thomas himself carrying a member who had been severely wounded. Later, when a further patrol was organised to go out and sweep the scene of action, Corporal Thomas volunteered and went out as its guide. His courage and determination during this action were an inspiration to the patrol and his outstanding leadership was a deciding factor in the success it achieved. The constant example of this young non-commissioned officer through his fearlessness and devotion to duty was responsible for the maintenance of the very high standard of morale and efficiency among his men.



TUNSTALL, Thomas Gilroy, Private (Temporary Corporal) (2/400106), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1951

Corporal Tunstall was B Company medical orderly during an intense 24-hour action on 7 October 1951, as part of operations against feature 174224. During this action, Corporal Tunstall displayed extreme heroism and devotion to duty in attending to and evacuating casualties. He was omnipresent throughout the action which caused around half of the members of his company to be either killed or wounded. During the fighting Corporal Tunstall frequently tended the wounded on open ground in the face of withering enemy small arms, mortar and shell fire. Corporal Tunstall showed complete disregard for his own personal safety and, through his brave and humane actions, was instrumental in maintaining a high state of morale amongst the remnants of his company.



WHITE, Alfred, Private (1/1745 ), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Private White was the signaller attached to the fighting patrol of A Company, 3 RAR, whose task was to raid the feature known as Point 115 on the night of 12 July 1952. Within ten yards of the trench encircling Point 115, the patrol came under intense machine-gun fire and was bombarded with grenades thrown by the enemy in the trench, seriously wounding the patrol commander, the second-in-command, a section corporal and inflicting heavy casualties on the remainder. Private White joined in the firefight, at the same time informing his company headquarters of the situation. On receiving orders to withdraw he assumed command of the patrol which, by this time was in some confusion, and organised its orderly withdrawal and the evacuation of the wounded to a firm base. He returned three times to within five yards of the enemy trench, each time carrying a casualty. After searching unsuccessfully for his wounded commander, he rejoined the firm base where he remained under heavy fire until all casualties had been evacuated. In assuming control in a critical situation, Private White displayed leadership of a high order and through his outstanding courage and devotion to duty saved many casualties from death or capture.



WHITE, Herbert Gordon, Private (2/400430), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

Private White was a rifleman in D Company, 3 RAR, who participated in numerous reconnaissances and fighting patrols against the enemy. On all occasions his conduct was outstanding and he proved steady and reliable, carrying out his duties in a most efficient and courageous manner. On the night of 2/3 September 1952, Private White was a member of a ten-man patrol which established an ambush in front of friendly forward defended localities. This position was attacked by approximately twenty enemy soldiers and, in the ensuing fight, the patrol commander was seriously wounded and the second-in-command was killed. After the patrol had beaten back the enemy, inflicting heavy casualties, Private White assumed command and reorganised the patrol to withstand a further attack. He then called for stretcher-bearers and, on their arrival, supervised the evacuation of his own and the enemy casualties. Private White remained in command until withdrawn at first light. His initiative and determination in assuming command and his leadership and thoroughness while in command, ensured that the morale and confidence of all remaining members of a patrol which had suffered heavy casualties were maintained until its return to safety

Signallers repair communication cable severed by a heavy fall of snow. 
(AWM HOBJ1883)


WILSON, Maxwell Eric, Lance Corporal (7/73), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1952

For five months prior to the night of 13/14 August 1952, Lance Corporal Wilson was second-in-command of a section in B Company, 3 RAR. During this time he took part in many patrols, operating up to and behind enemy lines. On all such occasions Lance Corporal Wilson displayed a high degree of courage, leadership and a complete disregard for his personal safety in his efforts to successfully accomplish the tasks allotted to him. On the night of 13/14 August 1952, B Company conducted a company raid on Point 75. During this raid Lance Corporal Wilson commanded the left forward section of the assault platoon. The defences on the final objective consisted of a deep circular trench system around the top of the feature. Lance Corporal Wilson's section had crossed the first trench as planned and was assaulting the farther position on the other side of the feature when an enemy .50 calibre machine-gun opened fire at short range, pinning the platoon. Displaying a complete disregard for his personal safety, Lance Corporal Wilson charged the machine-gun position and killed the machine-gunner with a grenade. At the same time he was himself wounded by an enemy grenade. This swift and gallant action on his part made the success of the whole operation possible and undoubtedly saved his platoon from numerous casualties. His exceptional courage, initiative and offensive spirit on this occasion represent but one example of the outstanding soldierly qualities he displayed in action at all times.



WOOLLEY, Henry Arthur, Private (6/400104), 
3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 1953

During the period Private Woolley served with the battalion he provided outstanding service as a company signaller. Early on the morning of 14 January 1953, following a heavy patrol action in the valley, B Company was subjected to intense enemy mortar fire and, as a result, line communications essential to the control of the withdrawal of the patrol, were cut on three occasions. Each time Private Woolley voluntarily went forward without hesitation through the shell fire and quickly re-established line contact with the forward platoons and outpost positions. Later on the same day, line communications were again cut by intense enemy bombardment and again Private Woolley went out with complete disregard for his personal safety and successfully repaired them. His outstanding courage and devotion to duty were, on many other occasions, also of inestimable value to his company. The willingness with which he discharged his exacting duties under fire gained him the respect and admiration of all ranks of his company.

Korea c. 1951. Their job of supporting the Australians in their push against the Chinese in Korea finished for the time being, a troop of B Squadron, 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, takes a well-earned break. 
(AWM HOBJ2444)

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